A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age

Author: Tooraj Jamasb

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1305512210

Category:

Page: 57

View: 322

It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. The review finds that the extent of power sector reforms has varied across developing countries in terms of changes in market structures, the role of the state, and the regulation of the sector. Overall, the reforms have improved the efficiency and productivity in the sector among many reforming countries. However, the efficiency gains have not always reached the end consumers because of the inability of sector regulators and inadequate regulatory frameworks. Reforms alleviate poverty and promote the welfare of the poor only when the poor have access to electricity. From a policy-making perspective, this implies that the reforms need to be supplemented with additional measures for accelerating electrification to help the poor.
A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age

Author: Tooraj Jamasb

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:913746138

Category: Economic development

Page: 57

View: 413

It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. The review finds that the extent of power sector reforms has varied across developing countries in terms of changes in market structures, the role of the state, and the regulation of the sector. Overall, the reforms have improved the efficiency and productivity in the sector among many reforming countries. However, the efficiency gains have not always reached the end consumers because of the inability of sector regulators and inadequate regulatory frameworks. Reforms alleviate poverty and promote the welfare of the poor only when the poor have access to electricity. From a policy-making perspective, this implies that the reforms need to be supplemented with additional measures for accelerating electrification to help the poor.
Rethinking Power Sector Reform in the Developing World

Author: Vivien Foster

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9781464814433

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 242

During the 1990s, a new paradigm for power sector reform was put forward emphasizing the restructuring of utilities, the creation of regulators, the participation of the private sector, and the establishment of competitive power markets. Twenty-five years later, only a handful of developing countries have fully implemented these Washington Consensus policies. Across the developing world, reforms were adopted rather selectively, resulting in a hybrid model, in which elements of market orientation coexist with continued state dominance of the sector. This book aims to revisit and refresh thinking on power sector reform approaches for developing countries. The approach relies heavily on evidence from the past, drawing both on broad global trends and deep case material from 15 developing countries. It is also forward looking, considering the implications of new social and environmental policy goals, as well as the emerging technological disruptions. A nuanced picture emerges. Although regulation has been widely adopted, practice often falls well short of theory, and cost recovery remains an elusive goal. The private sector has financed a substantial expansion of generation capacity; yet, its contribution to power distribution has been much more limited, with efficiency levels that can sometimes be matched by well-governed public utilities. Restructuring and liberalization have been beneficial in a handful of larger middle-income nations but have proved too complex for most countries to implement. Based on these findings, the report points to three major policy implications. First, reform efforts need to be shaped by the political and economic context of the country. The 1990s reform model was most successful in countries that had reached certain minimum conditions of power sector development and offered a supportive political environment. Second, countries found alternative institutional pathways to achieving good power sector outcomes, making a case for greater pluralism. Among the top performers, some pursued the full set of market-oriented reforms, while others retained a more important role for the state. Third, reform efforts should be driven and tailored to desired policy outcomes and less preoccupied with following a predetermined process, particularly since the twenty-first-century century agenda has added decarbonization and universal access to power sector outcomes. The Washington Consensus reforms, while supportive of the twenty-first-century century agenda, will not be able to deliver on them alone and will require complementary policy measures
Public-Private Partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: James Leigland

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198861829

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 601

Expectations are high regarding the potential benefits of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development in low-income countries. The development community, led by the G20, the United Nations, and others, expects these partnerships between goverments and private companies in infrastructure service provision to aid "transformational" mega-projects, as well as efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet PPPs have been widely used only since the 1990s, and discussion of their efficacy is still dominated by best-practice guidance, academic studies that focus on developed countries, or ideological criticism. Meanwhile, practitioners have quietly accumulated a large body of empirical evidence on the actual performance of PPPs. The purpose of this book is to summarize and consolidate what this critical mass of evidence-based research indicates about PPPs in low-income countries, and thereby develop a more realistic perspective on the practical value of these mechanisms. With a primary focus on Sub-Saharan Africa, though drawing on critical insights from other regions, it demonstrates that the benefits of such partnerships will only be realised if expectations remain modest and projects are subject to transparent evaluation and competition.
Revisiting Electricity Market Reforms

Author: Han Phoumin

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811942662

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 754

This book combines the fundamentals of industrial organization theories based on microeconomic foundations, applied econometrics and environmental and natural resource economics in undertaking a comprehensive review of reforms of the power sector and its impact on industrial and socio-economic performance. The book provides the reader with the intellectual groundwork necessary for understanding the workings and interactions of today’s reforming power markets such as in the ASEAN and East Asia that are striving to achieve the energy policy trilemma of affordability, energy sustainability and energy security. The topics addressed in this book include application of welfare theorems such as competition in and for the market in the electricity sector, market failures such as lack of electricity access, analysis of forecasting models under volatility, energy resource allocation such as renewable energy and competitive market designs of energy markets. Country-specific and region-specific case studies are used to analyze the progress and outcomes of market-driven electricity reforms across the reforming and advanced electricity markets. Therefore, the book derives policy lessons and provides policy recommendations in reforming power markets for the ASEAN and East Asia taking stock of more than three decades of global experience with power sector reforms. The electricity markets case studies are carefully chosen and supported by extensive data analyses as appropriate. This book on energy economics and policy is highly recommended to readers who seek an in-depth and up-to-date integrated overview about the evolving literature and status on electricity market reforms with a particular reference to Asia.
Green Digital Finance and Sustainable Development Goals

Author: Farhad Taghizadeh-Hesary

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811926624

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 366

View: 448

This book aims to fill the literature gap on digital instruments and FinTech in enhancing green finance. ​Technological innovation can increase transparency, accountability, and speed, decentralize the financial system, improve risk management, increase competition, lower costs, improve efficiency, increase cross-sectoral collaboration and integration, and scale up green finance. Artificial intelligence (AI), distributed ledger technologies (DLT) or blockchain, peer-to-peer lending platforms, big data, Internet-based and mobile-based payment platforms, Internet of Things (IoT), matchmaking platforms including crowdlending, tokenizing green assets are potential means to scale up the green finance for achieving the SDGs. The COVID-19 pandemic, the economic downturns, and the uncertainties shrank the new investments in renewable energy projects globally. Low investment in renewable energy projects could threaten the expansion of green energy needed to provide energy security and meet SDG7 and SDG13. Investments in renewable energy projects are scarce because of several risks and a low rate of return. Although several new green financing solutions such as green bonds, green banks, green credit guarantee, carbon taxation, carbon trade, village funds, and community trust funds have been established in different countries, these are insufficient, and alternative ways to finance projects are required. The book provides several high-quality studies on utilizing digitalization, FinTech, financial innovations, and other new technologies to fill the finance gap of green projects to meet the SDG goals. The chapters are written by scholars in diverse countries and regions and include practical policy recommendations.
Transforming Energy Systems

Author: Fries, Steven

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781800370371

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 663

Recognizing the urgent need to transform energy systems to low-carbon alternatives, this timely book offers evidenced and credible ways to accelerate actions towards meeting the Paris Agreement goals and achieving net zero emissions. Steven Fries analyses through the lens of government, business and household actionsÑtheir policies and investmentsÑthe systemic changes needed to eliminate net carbon dioxide emissions from energy.
The Handbook of Economic Development and Institutions

Author: François Bourguignon

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691191218

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 768

View: 505

"The essential role institutions play in understanding economic development has long been recognised and has been closely studied across the social sciences but some of the most high profile work has been done by economists many of whom are included in this collection covering a wide range of topics including the relationship between institutions and growth, educational systems, the role of the media and the intersection between traditional systems of patronage and political institutions. Each chapter covers the frontier research in its area and points to new areas of research and is the product of extensive workshopping and editing. The editors have also written an excellent introduction which brings together the key themes of the handbook. The list of contributors is stellar (Steven Durlauf, Throsten Beck, Bob Allen,and includes a diverse mix of Western and non Western, male and female scholars)"
Handbook of Research on Institution Development for Sustainable and Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa

Author: Osabuohien, Evans S.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799848189

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 507

View: 874

African countries are pursuing a number of development agendas toward achieving economic growth that is inclusive, pro-poor, and sustainable, particularly the type that can unleash the potential of women and booming youthful populations. However, available evidence shows that many African countries have experienced economic hardships and have performed more poorly than other developing and emerging countries in the global south. The Handbook of Research on Institution Development for Sustainable and Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa is an essential research publication that provides comprehensive research on the processes of building viable institutions in Africa that will serve as the fulcrum for utilizing and managing resources as well as promoting economic growth that is inclusive and sustainable. Featuring topics such as climate change, financial development, and poverty, this book is ideal for researchers, policymakers, developers, economic professionals, academicians, government officials, business professionals, and students.
Advanced Introduction to Law and Development

Author: Mariana M. Prado

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781788970891

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 590

In this thoroughly revised and updated second edition, Mariana Mota Prado and Michael J. Trebilcock offer a succinct and readable introduction to the main concepts and debates in the field of law and development. They examine the role of legal systems and institutions, investigate perceptions around what laws and legal arrangements encourage and facilitate development, and probe the issues arising in both private law and public law as well as in international economic relations. Written with the insight of two top experts in the field, this Advanced Introduction covers the most recent trends in law and development research and highlights areas that remain underexplored.
Shedding Light on Electricity Utilities in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: Daniel Camos

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9781464811838

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 593

The electricity sector in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is in the grip of an apparent paradox. The region holds the world’s largest oil and gas reserves and has been able to universalize access to electricity in most economies, but it may not be able to make the investments required to meet the future power needs of its fast-growing populations. The annual investments to keep pace with the demand for electricity have been estimated at about 3 percent of the region’s projected GDP. In most of the region’s economies, however, financial constraints limit the ability to make those investments. The power sector needs to find its own financing sources—and quickly. Shedding Light on Electricity Utilities in the Middle East and North Africa provides quantitative evidence on how better utility management; sustainable pricing; and selective, context-specific reforms would free enough resources to make the needed investments and lower the operating costs of the sector. The solution involves cutting costs and raising revenues through well-targeted and well-identified improvements. These improvements would generate more financing than the sector’s investment needs. The report provides detailed evidence of the size of the potential gain in each of the 14 MENA economies covered. The analysis is based on the MENA Electricity Database, a new dataset covering 67 electricity utilities, as well as a sample of utilities in comparable economies from other regions. The authors hope that their benchmarking efforts will provide a regional- and utility-level frame of reference for sector performance in the region. The book will be of interest to managers of electricity utilities, regulators, policy makers, and other stakeholders concerned with the performance of utilities in the region.