Restructuring and Regulatory Reform in the Power Sector

Author: Peter Choynowski

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105115171105

Category: Electric power consumption

Page: 51

View: 203

A worldwide trend began in the 1980s in both developed & developing countries to restructure their power sectors & reform their regulatory framework. The motivation in developed countries to restructure & reform was mainly to improve sector efficiency, while in the developing countries, it was to move the sector away from reliance on scarce public resources to more private sector financing. Since the Asian Development Bank was involved in restructuring & regulatory reform in many of Asia's developing countries, this report takes stock of the progress made to date in these countries, reviews the relevant experience in some developed countries & Latin America, & identifies the key issues that could have a bearing on its operations in Asia.
The World Bank's Role in the Electric Power Sector

Author:

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821323180

Category: Electric utilities

Page: 84

View: 400

The World Bank is changing the way it does business in the energy sector. This Policy Paper is one of two that outlines the Bank's new policies for the sector. The review was prompted by concern about the effects of power generation on the environment and on populations that may be resettled to make way for projects. Another stimulus was the macroeceonomic reality of fewer investment resources in many countries. And many developing countries are becoming more receptive to reforming the way energy is produced and consumed. This paper credits the "public monopoly" approach of the last 30 years with facilitating expansion of power supplies, capturing technical economies of scale, and making effective use of scarce managerial and technical skills. Nonetheless, it recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. These reforms will guide future Bank activities in the sector. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical. The efficiency of production and use of electric power in developing countries is examined in a companion paper, Energy Efficiency and Conservation in the Developing World: The World Banks Role . The World Bank's Role in the Electric Power Sector is also available in Spanish: La funcion del Banco Mundial en el sector de la electricidad. Politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria, y financieria eficaz. (ISBN 0-8213-2451-9) / Stock No. 12451 / $7.95 / Price code 007 / Spanis
Infrastructure Regulation

Author: Darryl S. L. Jarvis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814335744

Category: Infrastructure (Economics)

Page: 599

View: 975

Regulation of public infrastructure has been a topic of interest for more than a century. Providing public goods, securing their financing, maintenance, and improving the efficiency of their delivery, has generated a voluminous literature and series of debates. More recently, these issues have again become a central concern, as new public management approaches have transformed the role of the state in the provision of public goods and the modalities by which the financing of infrastructure and its operation are procured. Yet, despite the proliferation of new modalities of regulating infrastructure little is known about what works and why. Why do certain regulatory regimes fail and others succeed? What regulatory designs and institutional features produce optimal outcomes and how? And why do regulatory forms of governance when transplanted into different institutional contexts produce less than uniform outcomes? This book addresses these questions, exploring the theoretical foundations of regulation as well as a series of case studies drawn from the telecommunications, electricity, and water sectors. It brings together distinguished scholars and expert practitioners to explore the practical problems of regulation, regulatory design, infrastructure operation, and the implications for infrastructure provision.
A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age

Author: Tooraj Jamasb

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:913746138

Category: Economic development

Page: 57

View: 121

It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. The review finds that the extent of power sector reforms has varied across developing countries in terms of changes in market structures, the role of the state, and the regulation of the sector. Overall, the reforms have improved the efficiency and productivity in the sector among many reforming countries. However, the efficiency gains have not always reached the end consumers because of the inability of sector regulators and inadequate regulatory frameworks. Reforms alleviate poverty and promote the welfare of the poor only when the poor have access to electricity. From a policy-making perspective, this implies that the reforms need to be supplemented with additional measures for accelerating electrification to help the poor.
Power for Development

Author: Fernando Reyes Manibog

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821356933

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 132

View: 269

This publication evaluates the performance of the World Bank Group (WBG) during the 1990s in promoting private sector development in the electric power sector in 80 countries. Main findings include that where countries showed a commitment to advancing reforms in promoting private sector development and where programmes were properly implemented, the expected benefits were delivered. However, quality of outcomes depended on the objectives pursued and on types of assistance provided, with most countries remaining in the early stages of reform.
A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age

Author: Tooraj Jamasb

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1305512210

Category:

Page: 57

View: 592

It has been more than two decades since the widespread initiation of global power sector reforms and restructuring. However, empirical evidence on the intended microeconomic, macroeconomic, and quality-related impacts of reforms across developing countries is lacking. This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. The review finds that the extent of power sector reforms has varied across developing countries in terms of changes in market structures, the role of the state, and the regulation of the sector. Overall, the reforms have improved the efficiency and productivity in the sector among many reforming countries. However, the efficiency gains have not always reached the end consumers because of the inability of sector regulators and inadequate regulatory frameworks. Reforms alleviate poverty and promote the welfare of the poor only when the poor have access to electricity. From a policy-making perspective, this implies that the reforms need to be supplemented with additional measures for accelerating electrification to help the poor.
World Development Report 1994

Author:

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0195209923

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 254

View: 163

World Development Report 1994 examines the link between infrastructure and development and explores ways in which developing countries can improve both the provision and the quality of infrastructure services. In recent decades, developing countries have made substantial investments in infrastructure, achieving dramatic gains for households and producers by expanding their access to services such as safe water, sanitation, electric power, telecommunications, and transport. Even more infrastructure investment and expansion are needed in order to extend the reach of services - especially to people living in rural areas and to the poor. But as this report shows, the quantity of investment cannot be the exclusive focus of policy. Improving the quality of infrastructure service also is vital. Both quantity and quality improvements are essential to modernize and diversify production, help countries compete internationally, and accommodate rapid urbanization. The report identifies the basic cause of poor past performance as inadequate institutional incentives for improving the provision of infrastructure. To promote more efficient and responsive service delivery, incentives need to be changed through commercial management, competition, and user involvement. Several trends are helping to improve the performance of infrastructure. First, innovation in technology and in the regulatory management of markets makes more diversity possible in the supply of services. Second, an evaluation of the role of government is leading to a shift from direct government provision of services to increasing private sector provision and recent experience in many countries with public-private partnerships is highlighting new ways to increase efficiency and expand services. Third, increased concern about social and environmental sustainability has heightened public interest in infrastructure design and performance.
Rethinking Power Sector Reform in the Developing World

Author: Vivien Foster

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9781464814433

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 614

During the 1990s, a new paradigm for power sector reform was put forward emphasizing the restructuring of utilities, the creation of regulators, the participation of the private sector, and the establishment of competitive power markets. Twenty-five years later, only a handful of developing countries have fully implemented these Washington Consensus policies. Across the developing world, reforms were adopted rather selectively, resulting in a hybrid model, in which elements of market orientation coexist with continued state dominance of the sector. This book aims to revisit and refresh thinking on power sector reform approaches for developing countries. The approach relies heavily on evidence from the past, drawing both on broad global trends and deep case material from 15 developing countries. It is also forward looking, considering the implications of new social and environmental policy goals, as well as the emerging technological disruptions. A nuanced picture emerges. Although regulation has been widely adopted, practice often falls well short of theory, and cost recovery remains an elusive goal. The private sector has financed a substantial expansion of generation capacity; yet, its contribution to power distribution has been much more limited, with efficiency levels that can sometimes be matched by well-governed public utilities. Restructuring and liberalization have been beneficial in a handful of larger middle-income nations but have proved too complex for most countries to implement. Based on these findings, the report points to three major policy implications. First, reform efforts need to be shaped by the political and economic context of the country. The 1990s reform model was most successful in countries that had reached certain minimum conditions of power sector development and offered a supportive political environment. Second, countries found alternative institutional pathways to achieving good power sector outcomes, making a case for greater pluralism. Among the top performers, some pursued the full set of market-oriented reforms, while others retained a more important role for the state. Third, reform efforts should be driven and tailored to desired policy outcomes and less preoccupied with following a predetermined process, particularly since the twenty-first-century century agenda has added decarbonization and universal access to power sector outcomes. The Washington Consensus reforms, while supportive of the twenty-first-century century agenda, will not be able to deliver on them alone and will require complementary policy measures
Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries

Author: Tooraj Jamasb

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category: Electric power

Page:

View: 213

"Driven by ideology, economic reasoning, and early success stories, vast amounts of financial resources and effort have been spent on reforming infrastructure industries in developing countries. It is therefore important to examine whether evidence supports the logic of reforms. The authors review the empirical evidence on electricity reform in developing countries. They find that country institutions and sector governance play an important role in the success and failure of reform. And reforms also appear to have increased operating efficiency and expanded access to urban customers. However, the reforms have to a lesser degree passed on efficiency gains to customers, tackled distributional effects, and improved rural access. Moreover, some of the literature is not methodologically robust and on par with general development economics literature. Further, findings on some issues are limited and inconclusive, while other important areas are yet to be addressed. Until we know more, implementation of reforms will be more based on ideology and economic theory rather than solid economic evidence. "--World Bank web site.
Taking Stock of Economic Regulation of Power Utilities in the Developing World

Author: Martin Rodriguez Pardina

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1048221361

Category: Electric utilities

Page: 46

View: 575

The model of power sector reform that emerged during the 1990s placed considerable emphasis on the creation of an independent regulatory agency, with a strong orientation toward technically-driven tariff-setting procedures. Despite widespread uptake of regulation, implementation has proved to be challenging in the developing world. Regulators were seldom as independent as originally envisaged, with widespread divergence between the formal regulatory framework and the day-to-day practice of regulation. In practice, many developing countries operate with "advisory regulators" whose main role is to provide technical support to the ultimate political decision makers. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that regulation has had a positive performance impact, particularly where utilities are privatized and in middle-income settings. But the impact is more questionable in cases where regulation is primarily directed toward state-owned enterprises, which lack the commercial incentives to respond to regulatory instruments. On the choice of regulatory regimes, the ongoing debate between price cap and rate of return regulation suggests that the latter may be better suited to developing country environments where the priority is to provide predictable returns to support large capital investment programs. Furthermore, the advent of technological disruption in the power sector demands an adaptation of the way in which regulatory instruments are designed and applied. Regulators will need to pay closer attention to providing the right incentives for utilities to innovate and become more energy efficient, and for consumers to take economically grounded decisions on distributed generation. Finally, the literature leaves many important questions unanswered, such as how regulatory design affects regulatory effectiveness and the impact of tariff regulation on cost recovery.