This computational aerodynamics textbook is written at the undergraduate level, based on years of teaching focused on developing the engineering skills required to become an intelligent user of aerodynamic codes. This is done by taking advantage of CA codes that are now available and doing projects to learn the basic numerical and aerodynamic concepts required. This book includes a number of unique features to make studying computational aerodynamics more enjoyable. These include: • The computer programs used in the book's projects are all open source and accessible to students and practicing engineers alike on the book's website, www.cambridge.org/aerodynamics. The site includes access to images, movies, programs, and more • The computational aerodynamics concepts are given relevance by CA Concept Boxes integrated into the chapters to provide realistic asides to the concepts • Readers can see fluids in motion with the Flow Visualization Boxes carefully integrated into the text.
The growing application of computational aerodynamics to nonlinear helicopter problems is outlined, with particular emphasis on several recent quasi-two dimensional examples that used the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and an eddy-viscosity model to approximate turbulence. Rotor blades section characteristics can now be calculated accurately over a wide range of transonic flow conditions. However, a finite-difference simulation of transonic flow conditions. However, a finite-difference simulation of complete flow conditions. However, a finite-difference simulation of the complete flow field about a helicopter in forward flight is not currently feasible, despite the impressive progress that it being made in both two and three dimensions. The principal limitations are today's computer speeds and memories, algorithms and solution methods, grid generation, vortex modeling, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and a shortage of engineers who are skilled in both computational fluid dynamics and helicopter aerodynamics and dynamics. Keywords: Vortex interaction; Helicopter aerodynamics; Unsteady transonic flow.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has made remarkable progress in the last two decades and is becoming an important, if not inevitable, analytical tool for both fundamental and practical fluid dynamics research. The analysis of flow fields is important in the sense that it improves the researcher's understanding of the flow features. CFD analysis also indirectly helps the design of new aircraft and/or spacecraft. However, design methodologies are the real need for the development of aircraft or spacecraft. They directly contribute to the design process and can significantly shorten the design cycle. Although quite a few publications have been written on this subject, most of the methods proposed were not used in practice in the past due to an immature research level and restrictions due to the inadequate computing capabilities. With the progress of high-speed computers, the time has come for such methods to be used practically. There is strong evidence of a growing interest in the development and use of aerodynamic inverse design and optimization techniques. This is true, not only for aerospace industries, but also for any industries requiring fluid dynamic design. This clearly shows the matured engineering need for optimum aerodynamic shape design methodologies. Therefore, it seems timely to publish a book in which eminent researchers in this area can elaborate on their research efforts and discuss it in conjunction with other efforts.
This volume contains revised and edited forms of papers presented at the Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University from 19 to 21 January 1981. The Symposium was organized to bring together leading research workers in those aspects of aerodynamic flows represented by the five parts and to fulfill the following purposes : first, to allow the presentation of technical papers which provide a basis for research workers to assess the present status of the subject and to formulate priorities for the future; and second, to promote informal discussion and thereby to assist the communication and develop ment of novel concepts. The format ofthe content ofthe volume is similar to that ofthe Symposium and addresses, in separate parts: Numerical Fluid Dynamics, Interactive Steady Boundary Layers, Singularities in Unsteady Boundary Layers, Transonic Flows, and Experimental Fluid Dynamics. The motivation for most of the work described relates to the internal and extern al aerodynamics of aircraft and to the development and appraisal of design methods based on numerical solutions to conservation equations in differential forms, for corresponding components. The chapters concerned with numerical fluid dynamics can, perhaps, be interpreted in a more general context, but the emphasis on boundary-Iayer flows and the special consideration oftransonic flows reflects the interest in external flows and the recent advances which have allowed the calculation methods to encompass transonic regions.