Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture

Author: African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Conference

Publisher: IITA

ISBN: 0471935603

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 638

Biological nitrogen fixation in tropical agrosystems: twenty years of biological nitrogen fixation research in Africa; Sustainable agriculture: definition and measurement; Biological nitrogen fixation systems in tropical ecosystems: an overview; A protocol for screening legumes as soil-improving crops; The sustenance of tropical agriculture with multipurpose azolla; Facteurs pedoclimatiques limitant la lixation biologique l'azole; Response of some tropical nitrogen-fixing woody legumes to drought and inoculation with mycorrhiza; Improvement to the Phaseolus/Rhizobium symbiosis, with particular reference to the Caribbean region; Effect of pest management systems on biological nitrogen fixation; Agronomic evaluation of a rock phosphate as a phosphorus source for Leucaena leucocephala grown on an utisol; Nodulation of soybean grown under field conditions and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains; Effect of fertilization and Rhizobium inoculation on the growth of Leucaena and Gliricidia on an alfisol in south-western Nigeria; Early growth and nodulation in Leucaena and Gliricidia and the effects or pruning on biomass productivity; Comparative stude on the growth and productivity of Sesbania and Leucaena in the Central Plateau region, Rwanda; Supernoculation and non-nodulation mutants of soybean; Genetically improved rhizobia and their use in agriculture; Sustainability of nitrogen-fixing cropping systems: Nodulation and nitrogen fixation and transfer in a cowpea/rice cropping system; The role of legumes in sustaiing soil productivity and controlling soil erosion; Fitting soil-improving legumes into inland valley rice-baes cropping systems in West Africa; Herbage yield and soil fertility restoration potential of some tropical forage legumes.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Sustainable Agriculture

Author: J.K. Ladha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401709101

Category: Nature

Page: 212

View: 539

Chemical fertilizers have had a significant impact on food production in the recent past, and are today an indispensable part of modern agriculture. On the other hand, the oil crisis of the 1970s and the current Middle East problems are constant reminders of the vulnerability of our fossil fuel dependent agriculture. There are vast areas of the developing world where N fertilizers are neither available nor affordable and, in most of these countries, balance of payment problems have resulted in the removal of N fertilizer subsidies. The external costs of environmental degradation and human health far exceed economic concerns. Input efficiency of N fertilizer is one of the lowest and, in turn, contributes substantially to environmental pollution. Nitrate in ground and surface waters and the threat to the stability of the ozone layer from gaseous oxides of nitrogen are major health and environmental concerns. The removal of large quantities of crop produce from the land also depletes soil of its native N reserves. Another concern is the decline in crop yields under continuous use of N fertilizers. These economic, environmental and production considerations dictate that biological alternatives which can augment, and in some cases replace, N fertilizers must be exploited. Long-term sustainability of agricultural systems must rely on the use and effective management of internal resources. The process of biological nitrogen fixation offers and economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external nitrogen input and improving the quality and quantity of internal resources. In this book, we outline sustainability issues that dictate an increased use of biological nitrogen fixation and the constraints on its optimal use in agriculture.
Management of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the Development of More Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

Author: J.K. Ladha

Publisher: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

ISBN: 9780792334132

Category: Nature

Page: 300

View: 518

Reprinted from Plant and Soil, v.174, nos.1-2 (1995), this volume is devoted to discussions on the role of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in agricultural sustainability. Papers presented on BNF in crop forage and tree legumes are augmented with discussion of integrated farming systems involving BNF, soil and N management, and recycling of legume residues. BNF by non-legumes is discussed and attempts to transform cereals into nodulating plants are critically reviewed. Also described are advances in the development of new methodologies to understand symbiotic interactions and to assess N-2 fixation in the field; means of enhancing BNF through plant and soil management; breeding and selection; problems encountered in exploiting BNF under farmers' field conditions; and promising approaches to improve BNF exploitation. Lacks a subject index. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Maximising the Use of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture

Author: Gudni G. Hardarson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402012373

Category: Nature

Page: 238

View: 456

Incorporating contributions from microbiologists, molecular biologists, plant breeders and soil scientists this volume reports the results and recommendations of an FAO/IAEA meeting of twelve experts on biological nitrogen fixation. This volume will be invaluable to scientists working on nitrogen fixation, soil microbiology, agronomy and crop production as well as farm advisers and extension specialists. Maximising the Use of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture is unique in that it: -reviews the latest thinking on various aspects of biological nitrogen fixation technology and applications; -reviews the possibilities in enhancing nitrogen fixation in various cropping systems; -shows ways how biological nitrogen fixation can be used to enhance crop production; -considers the applicability of these technologies to small farmers in developing countries.
Opportunities for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Rice and Other Non-Legumes

Author: National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Pakistan)

Publisher: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

ISBN: 9780792345145

Category: Nature

Page: 226

View: 280

Proceedings of the Second Working Group Meeting of the Frontier Project on Nitrogen Fixation in Rice held in Faisalabad, Pakistan, 13-15 October 1996
Biofertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture and Environment

Author: Bhoopander Giri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030189334

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 746

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the benefits of biofertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Agricultural production has increased massively over the last century due to increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but these gains have come at a price. The chemicals are not only expensive; they also reduce microbial activity in agricultural soils and accumulate in the food chain, with potentially harmful effects for humans. Accordingly, it is high time to explore alternatives and to find solutions to overcome our increasing dependence on these chemicals. Biofertilizers, which consist of plant remains, organic matter and microorganisms, might offer an alternative. They are natural, organic, biodegradable, eco-friendly and cost-effective. Further, the microbes present in the biofertilizers are important, because they produce nutrients required for plant growth (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), as well as substances essential for plant growth and development (e.g., auxins and cytokinins). Biofertilizers also improve the physical properties, fertility and productivity of soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers while maintaining high crop yield. This makes biofertilizers a powerful tool for sustainable agriculture and a sustainable environment. The book covers the latest research on biofertilizers, ranging from beneficial fungal, bacterial and algal inoculants; to microbes for bioremediation, wastewater treatment; and recycling of biodegradable municipal, agricultural and industrial waste; as well as biocontrol agents and bio-pesticides. As such, it offers a valuable resource for researchers, academics and students in the broad fields of microbiology and agriculture.