Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids

Author: Tom Gehrels

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816515050

Category: Science

Page: 1340

View: 971

In 1993, the U.S. Department of Defense declassified information dealing with frequent explosions in the upper atmosphere caused by meteoric impact. It is estimated that impacts have occurred of a magnitude equivalent to the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima. Not all such space voyagers meet their end in the atmosphere, however; huge craters attest to the bombardment of earth over millions of years, and a major impact may have resulted in the extinction of dinosaurs. An impact in Siberia near the beginning of this century proves that such events are not confined to geologic time. Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids marks a significant step in the attempt to come to grips with the threats posed by such phenomena. It brings together more than one hundred scientists from around the world, who draw on observational and theoretical research to focus on the technical problems related to all aspects of dealing with these hazards: searching for and identifying hazardous comets and asteroids; describing their statistics and characteristics; intercepting and altering the orbits of dangerous objects; and applying existent technologies—rocket boosters, rendezvous and soft-landing techniques, instrumentation—to such missions. The book considers defensive options for diverting or disrupting an approaching body, including solar sails, kinetic-energy impacts, nuclear explosives, robotic mass drivers, and various propulsion systems. A cataclysmic impact posing a threat to life on Earth is a possibility that tomorrow's technology is capable of averting. This book examines in depth the reality of the threat and proposes practical measures that can be initiated now should we ever need to deal with it.
Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society

Author: Peter T. Bobrowsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540327110

Category: Science

Page: 546

View: 793

Leading specialists in various disciplines were first invited to a multidisciplinary workshop funded by ICSU on the topic to gain a better appreciation and perspective on the subject of comet/asteroid impacts as viewed by different disciplines. This volume provides a necessary link between various disciplines and comet/asteroid impacts.
Quantifying and Controlling Catastrophic Risks

Author: B. John Garrick

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123746016

Category: Nature

Page: 374

View: 791

PART 1? WHY RISK ASSESSMENT -- Chapter 1? Understanding Risk Assessement -- 1.1The Target Risks -- 1.2The Quantitative Definition of Risk -- 1.3The Meaning of Quantification -- 1.4Form of the Results of a Quantitative Risk Assessment -- 1.5References -- Chapter 2? Analytical Foundations of Quantitative Risk Assessment -- 2.1Quantitative Definition of Risk -- 2.2The Scenario Approach to Quantitative Risk Assessment -- 2.3Interpretation of Probability and Likelihood -- 2.4Quantification of the Scenarios -- 2.5Assembling the Results -- 2.6References -- Chapter 3? The Rational Management of Catastrophic Risks -- 3.1Benefits of Quantitative Risk Assessment -- 3.2The Role of the Case Studies -- 3.3Comparing Quantitative Risks Using the Case Studies -- 3.4Observations from the Case Studies -- 3.5Insights from Comparing Results -- 3.6Where Do We Go from Here? -- References -- PART 2? Risk Assessment Case Studies -- Chapter 3? Risk of a Catastrophic Hurricane in -- 3.1Summary of the Risk Assess ...
Catastrophe

Author: Richard A. Posner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199884384

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 534

Catastrophic risks are much greater than is commonly appreciated. Collision with an asteroid, runaway global warming, voraciously replicating nanomachines, a pandemic of gene-spliced smallpox launched by bioterrorists, and a world-ending accident in a high-energy particle accelerator, are among the possible extinction events that are sufficiently likely to warrant careful study. How should we respond to events that, for a variety of psychological and cultural reasons, we find it hard to wrap our minds around? Posner argues that realism about science and scientists, innovative applications of cost-benefit analysis, a scientifically literate legal profession, unprecedented international cooperation, and a pragmatic attitude toward civil liberties are among the keys to coping effectively with the catastrophic risks.
Assessment and Mitigation of Asteroid Impact Hazards

Author: Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319461793

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 298

This volume is a compilation of the research presented at the International Asteroid Day workshop which was celebrated at Barcelona on June 30th, 2015. The proceedings discuss the beginning of a new era in the study and exploration of the solar system’s minor bodies. International Asteroid Day commemorates the Tunguska event of June 30th, 1908. The workshop’s goal was to promote the importance of dealing proactively with impact hazards from space. Multidisciplinary experts contributed to this discussion by describing the nature of comets and asteroids along with their offspring, meteoroids. New missions to return material samples of asteroids back to Earth such as Osiris-REx and Hayabusa 2, as well as projects like AIM and DART which will test impact deflection techniques for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids encounters were also covered. The proceedings include both an outreach level to popularize impact hazards and a scientific character which covers the latest knowledge on these topics, as well as offering proposals of promising new techniques that will help gain new insights of the properties of these challenging bodies by studying meteoroids and meteorites. Asteroids, comets, meteoroids and meteorites are introduced with descriptions of their nature, origin, and solar system pathways.
Asteroids

Author: Edward C. Blair

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 1590334825

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 896

With the bulk of asteroids floating in space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, astronomers puzzle over where these rocks came from. Are they the remnants of a planet? Excess not used in the formation of the Solar System? Nothing more than random bits of debris? The location of the belt makes for a quasi-barrier separating the inner from the outer planets. Perhaps asteroids were meant to discourage human space exploration. NASA has sent missions to explore the asteroid belt and the rocks themselves, and those missions have yielded some interesting observations on the composition of the asteroids but no definitive answer as to their origin. Earth-based tools such as telescopes and satellites also contribute to asteroid research but cannot plumb the depths behind these varied chunks of flotsam. Presented in this book is a list of carefully chosen abstracts and citations of relevant literature about asteroids and the research into them. Prior to this listing, though, comes an overview of the nature of the asteroids and what we know now about them and what we hope to discover in the future. lifeless but mysterious rocks inhabiting the solar system. To conclude, easy access is provided through author, title, and subject indexes.

Tsunami

Tsunami

Author: Edward Bryant

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319061337

Category: Nature

Page: 222

View: 518

It is a comprehensive and well illustrated textbook on all aspects of tsunami. I don't think there is any other book on the topic published. As one bookseller said after the Indian Ocean tsunami event, "I would have just filled my front window with copies and they would have walked out the store." This statement was just as relevant after the Japanese tsunami of 2011 and will be as relevant when the next large tsunami event happens, sooner rather than later. The book can be used by a student or layperson to gain encyclopedic knowledge about tsunami.
Asteroids III

Author: William Frederick Bottke

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816522812

Category: Science

Page: 818

View: 651

Two hundred years after the first asteroid was discovered, asteroids can no longer be considered mere points of light in the sky. Spacecraft missions, advanced Earth-based observation techniques, and state-of-the-art numerical models are continually revealing the detailed shapes, structures, geological properties, and orbital characteristics of these smaller denizens of our solar system. This volume brings together the latest information obtained by spacecraft combined with astronomical observations and theoretical modeling, to present our best current understanding of asteroids and the clues they reveal for the origin an,d evolution of the solar system. This collective knowledge, prepared by a team of more than one hundred international authorities on asteroids, includes new insights into asteroid-meteorite connections, possible relationships with comets, and the hazards posed by asteroids colliding with Earth. The book's contents include reports on surveys based on remote observation and summaries of physical properties; results of in situ exploration; studies of dynamical, collisional, cosmochemical, and weathering evolutionary processes; and discussions of asteroid families and the relationships between asteroids and other solar system bodies. Two previous Space Science Series volumes have established standards for research into asteroids. Asteroids III carries that tradition forward in a book that will stand as the definitive source on its subject for the next decade.
Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids

Author: M. J. S. Belton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521827647

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 732

It is known that large asteroids and comets can collide with the Earth with severe consequences. Although the chances of a collision in a person's lifetime are small, collisions are a random process and could occur at any time. This book collects the latest thoughts and ideas of scientists concerned with mitigating the threat of hazardous asteroids and comets. It reviews current knowledge of the population of potential colliders, including their numbers, locations, orbits, and how warning times might be improved. The structural properties and composition of their interiors and surfaces are reviewed, and their orbital response to the application of pulses of energy is discussed. Difficulties of operating in space near, or on the surface of, very low mass objects are examined. The book concludes with a discussion of the problems faced in communicating the nature of the impact hazard to the public.
Earth

Author: Frank H. T. Rhodes

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801466212

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 918

"It's impossible to grasp the whole planet or integrate all the descriptions of it. But because we live here, we have to try. This is not just an artistic compulsion or an existential yearning, still less an academic exercise. It's a survival issue. This is the only planet we have. We're stuck here, and we don't own the place-it would be the height of arrogance to assume that we do. We're tenants here, not owners, but we're tenants with hope for a long-term tenancy. We want to extend our lease just as far as we can."-from Earth: A Tenant's Manual In Earth: A Tenant's Manual, the distinguished geologist Frank H. T. Rhodes, President Emeritus of Cornell University, provides a sweeping, accessible, and deeply informed guide to the home we all share, showing us how we might best preserve the Earth's livability for ourselves and future generations. Rhodes begins by setting the scene for our active planet and explaining how its location and composition determine how the Earth works and why it teems with life. He emphasizes the changes that are of concern to us today, from earthquakes to climate change and the clashes over the energy resources needed for the Earth's exploding population. He concludes with an extended exploration of humanity's prospects on a complex, protean, and ultimately finite world. It is not a question of whether the planet is sustainable; the challenge facing life on Earth-and the life of the Earth-is whether an expanding and high-consumption species like ours is sustainable. Only new resources, new priorities, new policies and, most of all, new knowledge, can reverse the damage that humanity is doing to our home-and ourselves. A sustainable human future, Rhodes concludes in this eloquent, sobering, but ultimately optimistic book, will require a sense of responsible stewardship, for we are not owners of this planet; we are tenants. Surveying the systems, large and small, that govern Earth's processes and influence its changes, Rhodes addresses the negative consequences of human activities for the health of its regulatory systems but offers practical suggestions as to how we might effect repairs, or at least limit further damage to our home.
Comets and the Origin and Evolution of Life

Author: Paul J. Thomas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475726886

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 957

A look at the role comets may have played in the origins and evolution of life, particularly in light of recent investigations of Halleys comet, new insights into organic synthesis in meteorites and comets, and new results of numerical simulations of cometary orbits and impacts on Earth. This is a comprehensive review of current research, accessible to graduate students and others new to the field. Each chapter was prepared by an expert in the field, and carefully revised by the editors for uniformity in style and presentation.