Computer Architecture Performance Evaluation Methods

Author: Lieven Eeckhout

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781608454679

Category: Computers

Page: 129

View: 509

The goal of this book is to present an overview of the current state-of-the-art in computer architecture performance evaluation. The book covers various aspects that relate to performance evaluation, ranging from performance metrics, to workload selection, to various modeling approaches such as analytical modeling and simulation. And because simulation is by far the most prevalent modeling technique in computer architecture evaluation, the book spends more than half its content on simulation, covering an overview of the various simulation techniques in the computer designer's toolbox, followed by various simulation acceleration techniques such as sampled simulation, statistical simulation, and parallel and hardware-accelerated simulation. The evaluation methods described in this book have a primary focus on performance. Although performance remains to be a key design target, it no longer is the sole design target. Power consumption and reliability have quickly become primary design concerns, and today they probably are as important as performance. Other important design constraints relate to cost, thermal issues, yield, etc. This book focuses on performance evaluation methods only. This does not compromise on the importance and general applicability of the techniques described in this book because power and reliability models are typically integrated into existing performance models. These integrated models pose similar challenges to the ones handled in this book. The book also focuses on presenting fundamental concepts and ideas. The book does not provide much quantitative data. Although quantitative data is crucial to performance evaluation, to understand the fundamentals of performance evaluation methods it is not. Moreover, quantitative data from different sources may be hard to compare, and may even be misleading, because the contexts in which the results were obtained may be very different - a comparison based on these numbe
Computer Architecture Performance Evaluation Methods

Author: Lieven Eeckhout

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031017278

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 132

View: 667

Performance evaluation is at the foundation of computer architecture research and development. Contemporary microprocessors are so complex that architects cannot design systems based on intuition and simple models only. Adequate performance evaluation methods are absolutely crucial to steer the research and development process in the right direction. However, rigorous performance evaluation is non-trivial as there are multiple aspects to performance evaluation, such as picking workloads, selecting an appropriate modeling or simulation approach, running the model and interpreting the results using meaningful metrics. Each of these aspects is equally important and a performance evaluation method that lacks rigor in any of these crucial aspects may lead to inaccurate performance data and may drive research and development in a wrong direction. The goal of this book is to present an overview of the current state-of-the-art in computer architecture performance evaluation, with a special emphasis on methods for exploring processor architectures. The book focuses on fundamental concepts and ideas for obtaining accurate performance data. The book covers various topics in performance evaluation, ranging from performance metrics, to workload selection, to various modeling approaches including mechanistic and empirical modeling. And because simulation is by far the most prevalent modeling technique, more than half the book's content is devoted to simulation. The book provides an overview of the simulation techniques in the computer designer's toolbox, followed by various simulation acceleration techniques including sampled simulation, statistical simulation, parallel simulation and hardware-accelerated simulation. Table of Contents: Introduction / Performance Metrics / Workload Design / Analytical Performance Modeling / Simulation / Sampled Simulation / Statistical Simulation / Parallel Simulation and Hardware Acceleration / Concluding Remarks
Computer Performance Measurement and Evaluation Methods

Author: Liba Svobodova

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: UOM:39015000494461

Category: Computers

Page: 146

View: 885

Performance evaluation is not just determining whether or not a system meets certain objectives; it is also understanding if and how system performance can be improved. A computer system analyst must master a number of techniques to ascertain important factors and their effect on system performance. The purpose of this book is to develop a better understanding of the problem of performance evaluation and to analyze available techniques within this concept. Directed to present and future computer analysts and designers, readers should be familiar with concepts of hardware organization, system architecture, and operating systems.
Computer Performance Evaluation. Modelling Techniques and Tools

Author: Ill.) Tools 200 (2003 Urbana

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540408147

Category: Computers

Page: 307

View: 330

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Modelling Techniques and Tools for Computer Performance Evaluation, TOOLS 2003, held in Urbana, IL, USA, in September 2003. The 17 revised full papers presented together with a keynote paper were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are organized in topical sections on tools for measuring, benchmarking, and online control; tools for evaluation of stochastic models; queueing models; Markovian arrival processes and phase-type distributions; and supporting model-based design of systems.
Deep Learning for Computer Architects

Author: Brandon Reagen

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031017568

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 109

View: 803

Machine learning, and specifically deep learning, has been hugely disruptive in many fields of computer science. The success of deep learning techniques in solving notoriously difficult classification and regression problems has resulted in their rapid adoption in solving real-world problems. The emergence of deep learning is widely attributed to a virtuous cycle whereby fundamental advancements in training deeper models were enabled by the availability of massive datasets and high-performance computer hardware. This text serves as a primer for computer architects in a new and rapidly evolving field. We review how machine learning has evolved since its inception in the 1960s and track the key developments leading up to the emergence of the powerful deep learning techniques that emerged in the last decade. Next we review representative workloads, including the most commonly used datasets and seminal networks across a variety of domains. In addition to discussing the workloads themselves, we also detail the most popular deep learning tools and show how aspiring practitioners can use the tools with the workloads to characterize and optimize DNNs. The remainder of the book is dedicated to the design and optimization of hardware and architectures for machine learning. As high-performance hardware was so instrumental in the success of machine learning becoming a practical solution, this chapter recounts a variety of optimizations proposed recently to further improve future designs. Finally, we present a review of recent research published in the area as well as a taxonomy to help readers understand how various contributions fall in context.
AI for Computer Architecture

Author: Lizhong Chen

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781681739854

Category: Computers

Page: 142

View: 467

This book reviews the application of machine learning in system-wide simulation and run-time optimization, and in many individual components such as caches/memories, branch predictors, networks-on-chip, and GPUs. Artificial intelligence has already enabled pivotal advances in diverse fields, yet its impact on computer architecture has only just begun. In particular, recent work has explored broader application to the design, optimization, and simulation of computer architecture. Notably, machine-learning-based strategies often surpass prior state-of-the-art analytical, heuristic, and human-expert approaches. The book further analyzes current practice to highlight useful design strategies and identify areas for future work, based on optimized implementation strategies, opportune extensions to existing work, and ambitious long term possibilities. Taken together, these strategies and techniques present a promising future for increasingly automated computer architecture designs.
Optimization and Mathematical Modeling in Computer Architecture

Author: Karu Sankaralingam

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031017735

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 144

View: 697

In this book we give an overview of modeling techniques used to describe computer systems to mathematical optimization tools. We give a brief introduction to various classes of mathematical optimization frameworks with special focus on mixed integer linear programming which provides a good balance between solver time and expressiveness. We present four detailed case studies -- instruction set customization, data center resource management, spatial architecture scheduling, and resource allocation in tiled architectures -- showing how MILP can be used and quantifying by how much it outperforms traditional design exploration techniques. This book should help a skilled systems designer to learn techniques for using MILP in their problems, and the skilled optimization expert to understand the types of computer systems problems that MILP can be applied to.
Security Basics for Computer Architects

Author: Ruby B. Lee

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031017421

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 96

View: 773

Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support for security into all future computers and embedded computing devices and appliances. I have tried to keep the book short, which means that many interesting topics and applications could not be included. What the book focuses on are the fundamental security concepts, across different security communities, that should be understood by any computer architect trying to design or evaluate security-aware computer architectures.
Quantum Computing for Computer Architects, Second Edition

Author: Tzvetan Metodi

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783031017315

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 192

View: 276

Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore the systems-level challenges in achieving scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this lecture, we provide an engineering-oriented introduction to quantum computation with an overview of the theory behind key quantum algorithms. Next, we look at architectural case studies based upon experimental data and future projections for quantum computation implemented using trapped ions. While we focus here on architectures targeted for realization using trapped ions, the techniques for quantum computer architecture design, quantum fault-tolerance, and compilation described in this lecture are applicable to many other physical technologies that may be viable candidates for building a large-scale quantum computing system. We also discuss general issues involved with programming a quantum computer as well as a discussion of work on quantum architectures based on quantum teleportation. Finally, we consider some of the open issues remaining in the design of quantum computers. Table of Contents: Introduction / Basic Elements for Quantum Computation / Key Quantum Algorithms / Building Reliable and Scalable Quantum Architectures / Simulation of Quantum Computation / Architectural Elements / Case Study: The Quantum Logic Array Architecture / Programming the Quantum Architecture / Using the QLA for Quantum Simulation: The Transverse Ising Model / Teleportation-Based Quantum Architectures / Concluding Remarks
Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

Author: Tzvetan Metodi

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 9781608456208

Category: Science

Page: 203

View: 415

Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore the systems-level challenges in achieving scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this lecture, we provide an engineering-oriented introduction to quantum computation with an overview of the theory behind key quantum algorithms. Next, we look at architectural case studies based upon experimental data and future projections for quantum computation implemented using trapped ions. While we focus here on architectures targeted for realization using trapped ions, the techniques for quantum computer architecture design, quantum fault-tolerance, and compilation described in this lecture are applicable to many other physical technologies that may be viable candidates for building a large-scale quantum computing system. We also discuss general issues involved with programming a quantum computer as well as a discussion of work on quantum architectures based on quantum teleportation. Finally, we consider some of the open issues remaining in the design of quantum computers. Table of Contents: Introduction / Basic Elements for Quantum Computation / Key Quantum Algorithms / Building Reliable and Scalable Quantum Architectures / Simulation of Quantum Computation / Architectural Elements / Case Study: The Quantum Logic Array Architecture / Programming the Quantum Architecture / Using the QLA for Quantum Simulation: The Transverse Ising Model / Teleportation-Based Quantum Architectures / Concluding Remarks
Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking

Author: Lizy Kurian John

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420037425

Category: Computers

Page: 304

View: 196

Computer and microprocessor architectures are advancing at an astounding pace. However, increasing demands on performance coupled with a wide variety of specialized operating environments act to slow this pace by complicating the performance evaluation process. Carefully balancing efficiency and accuracy is key to avoid slowdowns, and such a balance can be achieved with an in-depth understanding of the available evaluation methodologies. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking outlines a variety of evaluation methods and benchmark suites, considering their strengths, weaknesses, and when each is appropriate to use. Following a general overview of important performance analysis techniques, the book surveys contemporary benchmark suites for specific areas, such as Java, embedded systems, CPUs, and Web servers. Subsequent chapters explain how to choose appropriate averages for reporting metrics and provide a detailed treatment of statistical methods, including a summary of statistics, how to apply statistical sampling for simulation, how to apply SimPoint, and a comprehensive overview of statistical simulation. The discussion then turns to benchmark subsetting methodologies and the fundamentals of analytical modeling, including queuing models and Petri nets. Three chapters devoted to hardware performance counters conclude the book. Supplying abundant illustrations, examples, and case studies, Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking offers a firm foundation in evaluation methods along with up-to-date techniques that are necessary to develop next-generation architectures.