Current Issues in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

Author: G.H. Elkan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401157001

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 240

In the 100 years since the legume-Rhizobium symbiotic nitrogen fixation interaction was first described, interest in this field has grown rapidly. The types of studies have been cyclical in nature, involving a cross-section of disciplines. The availability of cheap nitrogenous fertilizers caused much of the biological nitrogen fixation research to become more theoretical in the developed world. The high cost of energy, coupled with environmental concerns and the interest in sustainable agriculture, has stimulated research in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The development of modern genetic techniques has resulted in interdisciplinary research on plant-microbe interactions controlling nitrogen fixation. This has resulted in a better understanding of environmental factors influencing the nodulation process, chemical signalling between the symbiotic partners and the nature of the specificity between host plant and microsymbiotant. This volume summarizes the diverse research efforts in biological nitrogen fixation by presenting a collection of papers in the areas of physiology and metabolism, taxonomy and evolution, genetics and ecology.
Legume Nitrogen Fixation in a Changing Environment

Author: Saad Sulieman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319062129

Category: Science

Page: 133

View: 168

The world population will grow more rapidly during the few coming years. This must be accompanied by a parallel increase in the agricultural production to secure adequate food. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to chemical nitrogen fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, a microbiological process which converts atmospheric N2 into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Among these renewable sources, N2-fixing legumes offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Environmental factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising CO2 are known to dramatically affect the symbiotic process and thus play a part in determining the actual amount of nitrogen fixed by a given legume in the field. Understanding how nodule N2 fixation responds to the environment is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining sustainability in the context of global change. In this thoughtful and provocative new Brief, we provide critical information on how current and projected future changes in the environment will affect legume growth and their symbiotic N2 fixing capabilities. Each section reviews the main drivers of environmental change on the legume performance that include drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO2, and soil acidity. Importantly we discuss the molecular approaches to the analysis of the stress response in legumes and the possible biotechnological strategies to overcome their detrimental effects.
Microbial Physiology

Author: S.R. Reddy

Publisher: Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9789387913196

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 348

View: 274

This book, the first of its kind by Indian authors, tries to develop a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolism. It deals with all basic and unique physiological aspects of microorganisms in an ordered sequence with profuse illustrations. Discussion of all chapters is based on the concepts of bioenergetics which form the life-line of metabolic functions. It provides the foundation and general frame work for further understanding of the subject. This book not only serves as a text for undergraduate, post-graduate students, but also as a reference book to teachers, researchers and all others interested in the metabolism of the microorganisms in particular and living organisms in general.
Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes

Author: K.A. Malik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401152327

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 784

Diazotrophic bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to plant-useable form and this input of nitrogen through biological fixation is of great agronomic importance. The contributions presented in this volume relate to free-living nitrogen fixers and the diazotrophs associated with plants. Symbiotic association of Frankia with non-legumes and cyanobacterial associations are also discussed. Research topics covered in this volume include the biochemistry and genetics of diazotrophs, recent developments in improvement of plant-microbe interactions and their molecular basis, the use of molecular probes in taxonomy and ecology of diazotrophs and reports on field applications, agronomic importance and improvement in methodologies for assessing their contribution to plants. This book provides valuable information not only for researchers working in the field of biological nitrogen fixation but also for biochemistry, molecular biologists, microbiologists and agronomists.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Felix D. Dakora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402082528

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 280

Poverty is a severe problem in Africa, Asia, South America and even in pockets of the developed world. Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation. Because nitrogen-fixation research is multidisciplinary, exploiting its benefits for agriculture and environmental protection has continued to attract research by diverse groups of scientists, including chemists, biochemists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, agricultural scientists, extension agents, and inoculant producers. The 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation was held jointly with the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. This joint Congress was hosted in South Africa at the Cape Town International Conv- tion Centre, 21–26 January 2007, and was attended by about 200 registered participants from 41 countries world-wide. During the Congress, some 100 oral and approximately 80 poster papers were presented. The wide range of topics covered and the theme of the Congress justifies this book’s title, Nitrogen Fixation: Applications to Poverty Alleviation.
Cycles of Soils

Author: F. J. Stevenson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471320714

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 448

View: 552

An updated edition of the classic work on the inorganic chemistry of soils. * With its companion volume, Humus Chemistry, forms a complete, advanced-level treatment of both organic and inorganic aspects of soil chemistry. * Revised to keep pace with the latest developments in the field. * Provides more in-depth treatment of all topics.
Nitrogen Fixation: From Molecules to Crop Productivity

Author: Fabio O. Pedrosa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306476150

Category: Science

Page: 669

View: 281

These proceedings bring together diverse disciplines that study nitrogen fixation and describe the most recent advances made in various fields: chemists are now studying FeMoco, the active site of nitrogenase in non-protein surroundings, and have refined the crystal structure of the enzyme to 1.6 angstroms.

Author: Peter M. Gresshoff

Publisher: CRC PressI Llc

ISBN: UCSD:31822003708336

Category: Medical

Page: 269

View: 817

Genetics as a tool to understand structure and function; Vector technology of relevance to nitrogen fixation research; The Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis; The genetics of the Frankia-actinorhizal symbiosis; Legume nodule biochemistry and function; The Rhizobium/bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis; Nitrate inhibition of nodulation in legumes; Nodulin function and nodulin gene regulation in root nodule development; The Parasponia-bradyrhizobium symbiosis.
Agricultural Ecology

Author: H.D.Kumar

Publisher: APH Publishing

ISBN: 8176489948

Category: Agricultural systems

Page: 320

View: 443

Rooted firmly in the principles of econology, the agricultural enterprise, even though having been exposed to the impact of environmental problems arising from land degradation, soil erosion, groundwater depletion and pollution and loss of biological diversity, has so far stood firm and survived to meet the food requirements of the growing population, so much so that there have been some striking instances of food glut in several countires, including some that used to sufer famiens only half a century ago.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Sustainable Agriculture

Author: J.K. Ladha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401709101

Category: Nature

Page: 212

View: 422

Chemical fertilizers have had a significant impact on food production in the recent past, and are today an indispensable part of modern agriculture. On the other hand, the oil crisis of the 1970s and the current Middle East problems are constant reminders of the vulnerability of our fossil fuel dependent agriculture. There are vast areas of the developing world where N fertilizers are neither available nor affordable and, in most of these countries, balance of payment problems have resulted in the removal of N fertilizer subsidies. The external costs of environmental degradation and human health far exceed economic concerns. Input efficiency of N fertilizer is one of the lowest and, in turn, contributes substantially to environmental pollution. Nitrate in ground and surface waters and the threat to the stability of the ozone layer from gaseous oxides of nitrogen are major health and environmental concerns. The removal of large quantities of crop produce from the land also depletes soil of its native N reserves. Another concern is the decline in crop yields under continuous use of N fertilizers. These economic, environmental and production considerations dictate that biological alternatives which can augment, and in some cases replace, N fertilizers must be exploited. Long-term sustainability of agricultural systems must rely on the use and effective management of internal resources. The process of biological nitrogen fixation offers and economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external nitrogen input and improving the quality and quantity of internal resources. In this book, we outline sustainability issues that dictate an increased use of biological nitrogen fixation and the constraints on its optimal use in agriculture.