Current Issues in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

Author: Gerald Elkan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792343670

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 466

In the 100 years since the legume-Rhizobium symbiotic nitrogen fixation interaction was first described, interest in this field has grown rapidly. The types of studies have been cyclical in nature, involving a cross-section of disciplines. The availability of cheap nitrogenous fertilizers caused much of the biological nitrogen fixation research to become more theoretical in the developed world. The high cost of energy, coupled with environmental concerns and the interest in sustainable agriculture, has stimulated research in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The development of modern genetic techniques has resulted in interdisciplinary research on plant-microbe interactions controlling nitrogen fixation. This has resulted in a better understanding of environmental factors influencing the nodulation process, chemical signalling between the symbiotic partners and the nature of the specificity between host plant and microsymbiotant. This volume summarizes the diverse research efforts in biological nitrogen fixation by presenting a collection of papers in the areas of physiology and metabolism, taxonomy and evolution, genetics and ecology.
Current Issues in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

Author: G.H. Elkan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401157001

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 282

In the 100 years since the legume-Rhizobium symbiotic nitrogen fixation interaction was first described, interest in this field has grown rapidly. The types of studies have been cyclical in nature, involving a cross-section of disciplines. The availability of cheap nitrogenous fertilizers caused much of the biological nitrogen fixation research to become more theoretical in the developed world. The high cost of energy, coupled with environmental concerns and the interest in sustainable agriculture, has stimulated research in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The development of modern genetic techniques has resulted in interdisciplinary research on plant-microbe interactions controlling nitrogen fixation. This has resulted in a better understanding of environmental factors influencing the nodulation process, chemical signalling between the symbiotic partners and the nature of the specificity between host plant and microsymbiotant. This volume summarizes the diverse research efforts in biological nitrogen fixation by presenting a collection of papers in the areas of physiology and metabolism, taxonomy and evolution, genetics and ecology.
Legume Nitrogen Fixation in a Changing Environment

Author: Saad Sulieman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319360094

Category: Science

Page: 133

View: 670

The world population will grow more rapidly during the few coming years. This must be accompanied by a parallel increase in the agricultural production to secure adequate food. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to chemical nitrogen fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, a microbiological process which converts atmospheric N2 into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Among these renewable sources, N2-fixing legumes offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Environmental factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising CO2 are known to dramatically affect the symbiotic process and thus play a part in determining the actual amount of nitrogen fixed by a given legume in the field. Understanding how nodule N2 fixation responds to the environment is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining sustainability in the context of global change. In this thoughtful and provocative new Brief, we provide critical information on how current and projected future changes in the environment will affect legume growth and their symbiotic N2 fixing capabilities. Each section reviews the main drivers of environmental change on the legume performance that include drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO2, and soil acidity. Importantly we discuss the molecular approaches to the analysis of the stress response in legumes and the possible biotechnological strategies to overcome their detrimental effects.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXATION

Author: Peter M. Gresshoff

Publisher: CRC PressI Llc

ISBN: UCSD:31822003708336

Category: Medical

Page: 292

View: 646

Genetics as a tool to understand structure and function; Vector technology of relevance to nitrogen fixation research; The Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis; The genetics of the Frankia-actinorhizal symbiosis; Legume nodule biochemistry and function; The Rhizobium/bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis; Nitrate inhibition of nodulation in legumes; Nodulin function and nodulin gene regulation in root nodule development; The Parasponia-bradyrhizobium symbiosis.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Felix D. Dakora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402082528

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 944

Poverty is a severe problem in Africa, Asia, South America and even in pockets of the developed world. Addressing poverty alleviation via the expanded use of biological nitrogen fixation in agriculture was the theme of the 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation. Because nitrogen-fixation research is multidisciplinary, exploiting its benefits for agriculture and environmental protection has continued to attract research by diverse groups of scientists, including chemists, biochemists, plant physiologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, agricultural scientists, extension agents, and inoculant producers. The 15th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation was held jointly with the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. This joint Congress was hosted in South Africa at the Cape Town International Conv- tion Centre, 21–26 January 2007, and was attended by about 200 registered participants from 41 countries world-wide. During the Congress, some 100 oral and approximately 80 poster papers were presented. The wide range of topics covered and the theme of the Congress justifies this book’s title, Nitrogen Fixation: Applications to Poverty Alleviation.
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: Sustainable Growth of Non-legumes

Author: Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811949067

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 396

View: 788

This book covers aspects of biological nitrogen fixation along with the unique signaling and interaction between the diazotrophic bacteria and plants, especially the non-legumes. Nitrogen is the most important growth-limiting nutrient in the ecosystems and biological nitrogen fixation involving microbial symbionts, mainly rhizobia and legumes holds enormous interest across the globe. However, free-living rhizobacteria of non-legumes especially cereals, also establish themselves within the root system, fixing nitrogen and contributing to plant productivity, soil fertility, and agricultural sustainability. These non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers additionally exhibit various plant growth-promoting traits elevating productivity, fortifying nutrient content, and managing water stress in plants. The recent perspectives highlighting the mechanisms and background of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation provide answers to unravel the potential of nitrogenase and various spectra of habitats of rhizobia and other diazotrophic bacteria. Further, the application of genetic engineering and the development of nitrogen-fixing cereals can provide a possible solution to the problem of food shortage. The book includes various scientific inputs providing comprehensive knowledge about the emergence of agricultural sustainability through nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The book illustrates the systematic mechanisms involved in biological nitrogen fixation through various illustrations, schematic drawings, and flow charts aiding in better understanding. The chapters elaborate on the physiology and metabolism of plant-bacteria interaction in different crops under diverse environmental conditions. Thus, the volume will provide a holistic scenario helping in advancing the novel plant-microbe interactions, cell-signaling, and plant-molecular interactions. The book will assist the agronomists, microbiologists, ecologists, plant pathologists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policymakers, conservationists, and NGOs to develop biofertilizers and bioinoculants using various genera of microbes and contribute to the targets of sustainable goals in an eco-friendly manner.
Microbial Physiology

Author: S.R. Reddy

Publisher: Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9789387913196

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 348

View: 984

This book, the first of its kind by Indian authors, tries to develop a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolism. It deals with all basic and unique physiological aspects of microorganisms in an ordered sequence with profuse illustrations. Discussion of all chapters is based on the concepts of bioenergetics which form the life-line of metabolic functions. It provides the foundation and general frame work for further understanding of the subject. This book not only serves as a text for undergraduate, post-graduate students, but also as a reference book to teachers, researchers and all others interested in the metabolism of the microorganisms in particular and living organisms in general.
Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes

Author: K.A. Malik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401152327

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 199

Diazotrophic bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to plant-useable form and this input of nitrogen through biological fixation is of great agronomic importance. The contributions presented in this volume relate to free-living nitrogen fixers and the diazotrophs associated with plants. Symbiotic association of Frankia with non-legumes and cyanobacterial associations are also discussed. Research topics covered in this volume include the biochemistry and genetics of diazotrophs, recent developments in improvement of plant-microbe interactions and their molecular basis, the use of molecular probes in taxonomy and ecology of diazotrophs and reports on field applications, agronomic importance and improvement in methodologies for assessing their contribution to plants. This book provides valuable information not only for researchers working in the field of biological nitrogen fixation but also for biochemistry, molecular biologists, microbiologists and agronomists.
Cycles of Soils

Author: F. J. Stevenson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471320714

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 450

View: 569

An updated edition of the classic work on the inorganic chemistry of soils. * With its companion volume, Humus Chemistry, forms a complete, advanced-level treatment of both organic and inorganic aspects of soil chemistry. * Revised to keep pace with the latest developments in the field. * Provides more in-depth treatment of all topics.
Nitrogen Fixation: From Molecules to Crop Productivity

Author: Fabio O. Pedrosa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306476150

Category: Science

Page: 669

View: 907

These proceedings bring together diverse disciplines that study nitrogen fixation and describe the most recent advances made in various fields: chemists are now studying FeMoco, the active site of nitrogenase in non-protein surroundings, and have refined the crystal structure of the enzyme to 1.6 angstroms.
Genetic Engineering for Nitrogen Fixation

Author: Alexander Hollaender

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UOM:39015001490328

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 753

Overview of nitrogen fixation; Plasmids as vectors for gene cloning; The nitrogen fixation cistrons of Klebsiella pneumoniae; Transformation of nitrogen-fixation genes in Azotobacter; Genetic hybridization of root-nodule bacteria (Rhizobium); Genetic mapping of Rhizobium meliloti using RP4; Nitrogen fixation (NIF) regulatory mutants of Klebsiella: determination of the energy cost of N2 fixation in vivo; Cloning nitrogen fixing genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae in vitro and the isolation of NIF promoter mutants affecting glutamine synthetase regulation; The development of a molecular cloning system in higher plants; The ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a natural vector for the introduction of NIF genes in plants?; The incorporation and expression of agrobacterium plasmid genes in crown gall tumors; Engineered plant cell or fungal association with bacteria that fix nitrogen; Uptake of the nitrogen fixing blue-green alga Gloeocapsa by plant protoplasts; The azolla-anabaena azollae symbiosis; Nitrogen fixation by Azolla in rice fields; Lectins as determinants of specificity in legume-rhizobium symbiosis; Plant protoplast fusion and hybridization; Biochemistry of nitrogenase; Energy coupling efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation; Approaches for increasing phorosynthetic efficiency efficiency; Rate-limiting steps in biological photoproductivity; Photosynthesis and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Use of RP4 plasmids carrying bacteriophage Mu insertions in nitrogen fixing bacteria. Genetic control of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean; Glutamine synthetase control of nitrogen fixation in Rhizobia; Introduction of potential sex factors into Rhizobium japonicum; Antibiotic resistance in Rhizobium japonicum: implications for safety and interpretation of NIF transfer from Rhizobium; Limitations to field application of Rhizobium inoculants; Fast reaction kinetics of ferredoxin; Transient intermediate species in the oxidation of hydrazine; Recombinant DNA guidelines for nitrogen fixation in plant sciences - roundtable summary; Potential associated nitrogen fixing systems - roundtable; Physiological studies of Spirillum lipoferum; N2 fixation associated with non-leguminous; Taxonomic studies of Spirillum lipoferum; Use of 15N-enriched soil to study N2 fixation in grasses; Panel on public impact issues summarized; Environmental impact; Genetic engineering of nitrogen fixations (NIF); Legal aspects of recombinant DNA research; Agricultural productivity and biological nitrogen fixation, an international view.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Author: Frans J. de Bruijn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118637127

Category: Science

Page: 0

View: 595

Biological Nitrogen Fixation is a comprehensive 3 volume work bringing together both review and original research articles on key topics in nitrogen fixation. Chapters across all three volumes emphasize molecular techniques and advanced biochemical analysis approaches applicable to various aspects of biological nitrogen fixation, but each volume also has a unique focus: Volume I explores the chemistry and biochemistry of nitrogenases, nif gene regulation, the taxonomy, evolution, and genomics of nitrogen fixing organisms, as well as their physiology and metabolism. Volume II covers the symbiotic interaction of nitrogen fixing organisms with their host plants, including nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Volume III features chapters on the "omics" of nitrogen fixing organisms and host plants, nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria and archaea, nitrogen fixing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and non-legumes, as well as field studies and nitrogen fixation in cereals. Covering the full breadth of current nitrogen fixation research and synthesizing it to point the way forward, Biological Nitrogen Fixation will be a one-stop reference for microbial ecologists and environmental microbiologists as well as plant and agricultural researchers working on crop sustainability.