China is the world?s second largest consumer of commercial energy and is therefore a significant contributor to atmospheric pollution. It is becoming a major player in global and regional markets for energy products, services and investment. This book provides an overview of the formulation and implementation of energy policy in China. Part One provides background information on China?s energy sector. Part Two examines the nature of China?s energy policy and of the policy-making process, with examples drawn from the coal and natural gas sectors, as well as from the government?s drive to promote energy conservation and energy efficiency. Part Three focuses on recent efforts to reform the energy sector in China and to regulate it more effectively, paying particular attention to the electrical power sector and to small-scale coal mines. Part Four evaluates, from the perspective of the citizen, policy relating to the electrical power sector and to the closure of small-scale coal mines. Part Five addresses the international dimensions of China?s energy policy, with accounts of both inward and outward investment, and of the international political implications. About the author: Dr Philip Andrews-Speed is Director of the Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee, Scotland. He spent fourteen years as a geologist in the international mining and petroleum industries before coming to the Centre in 1994, gaining an LLM in Energy Law and Policy, and joining the academic staff.
China’s rapid economic growth in the recent decades has produced an unprecedented energy vulnerability that could threaten the sustainability of its economic development, a linchpin to social stability and ultimately the regime legitimacy of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) as well as the foundation for China's rising power aspirations. What is the Chinese perception of the energy security and challenges, how has the Chinese government responded to the challenges? What are the international implications of China’s search for energy security? This collection of contributions by leading scholars seeks answers to these extremely important questions. The book is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of China’s sense of energy security and its strategic responses. Part II examines China’s energy policy-making processes, the efforts to reform and reorganize the energy sector and reset policy priorities Part III focuses on the international implications of China’s search for energy security. This book consists of articles published in the Journal of Contemporary China.
Over the last decade, Chinese energy companies have engaged in the acquisition of oil and gas in Africa. This book investigates the activities of Chinese energy companies throughout a number of African countries, including Nigeria, Angola, Sudan and Tunisia. Based on seven years of empirical research and hundreds of interviews with Chinese government and company representatives, Chinese Energy Companies in Africa breaks original ground in understanding the emergence of domestic interest groups in foreign policy. It examines the impact of non-state actors on Chinese foreign policy, and in particular the increasing role played by national old companies (NOCs). Supported by extensive data, this is also the first publication of its kind to focus on the foreign policy behaviour of an authoritarian state and the role herein played by non-state actors. In addition to the main cases put forward, a chapter of comparative mini-cases is included. This book creates important implications for both policymakers and scholars; it will serve as a valuable resource for those involved in the fields of foreign policy, international security and international relations.
China, the European Union and Global Governance examines the key determinants of European and Chinese approaches to the restructuring of global governance systems. Using a multidisciplinary method, this collection of chapters analyses four distinct fields that are key for both China and the EU and in the development of their relations and future cooperation: the global trading system, the international monetary system, climate and energy policy and international security. In the context of ChinaÍs growing role in global governance and of EU_China cooperation, these contributions emphasize strategies, prospects and objectives of both actors. They outline possible avenues for an enhanced partnership in light of the changing global order, which implies a rethinking of the existing multilateral structures. This interdisciplinary study will appeal to researchers and scholars interested in global governance, European foreign policy, Chinese foreign policy, EU_China relations, as well as trade, the international economy and climate change policies. Postgraduate students in international relations, international political economy, European studies and Chinese studies, as well as policymakers in the areas of external relations and EU_China relations, will also find much to interest them in this book.
China’s rapid economic growth has led to a huge increase in its domestic energy needs. This book provides a critical overview of how China’s growing need for oil imports is shaping its international economic and diplomatic strategy and how this affects global political relations and behaviour. Part One is focused on the domestic drivers of energy policy: it provides a systematic account of recent trends in China’s energy sector and assesses the context and processes of energy policy making, and concludes by showing how and why China’s oil industry has spread across the world in the last fifteen years. Part Two analyses the political and foreign policy implications of this energy-driven expansion and the challenges this potentially poses for China’s integration into the international system. It examines a number of factors linked to this integration in the energy field, including the unpredictabilities of internal policymaking; China’s determination to promote its own critical national interests, and the general ambition of the Chinese leadership to integrate with the international system on its own terms and at its own speed. The highly topical book draws together the various dimensions of China’s international energy strategy, and provides insights into the impact of this on China’s growing international presence in various parts of the world.
This review of China's regulatory system focuses on the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness.
Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world’s population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the ‘Township Electrification Program’, launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world’s largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders’ concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government’s policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the ‘Township Electrification Program’ followed a ‘centralized and closed top-down’ approach within China’s communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders’ conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households’ ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households’ energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households’ needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries.
During the last few decades, China has accomplished unprecedented economic growth and has emerged as the second largest economy in the world. This ‘economic miracle’ has led hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, but has also come at a high cost. Environmental degradation and the impact of environmental pollution on health are nowadays issues of the greatest concern for the Chinese public and the government. The Routledge Handbook of Environmental Policy in China focuses on the environmental challenges of China’s rapidly growing economy and provides a comprehensive overview of the policies developed to address the environmental crisis. Leading international scholars and practitioners examine China’s environmental governance efforts from an interdisciplinary perspective. Divided into five parts, the handbook covers the following key issues: Part I: Development of Environmental Policy in China - Actors and Institutions Part II: Key issues and Strategies for Solution Part III: Policy Instruments and Enforcement Part IV: Related Policy Fields – Conflicts and Synergies Part V: China’s Environmental Policy in the International Context This comprehensive handbook will be an invaluable resource to students and scholars of environmental policy and politics, development studies, Chinese studies, geography and international relations.
China, India, and East and Southeast Asia: Assessing Sustainability provides unprecedented analyses by regional experts and scholars elsewhere in the world on China, India, and their neighbors. Despite growing demands internally on their natural resources (China and India alone are home to more than one-third of the world's population), the expanding global economic influence of this region makes these countries vital players in a sustainable future for all citizens of the Earth. Regional coverage includes topics such as business and commerce, environmental and corporate law, and lifestyles and values.
This book focuses on how to create an environmentally friendly society in China from the viewpoint of environmental law and policy. The authors accessed a great number of valuable sources not available in English, and interviewed various scholars and public officials, in order to analyze the environmental policies in China while comparing some of the features to Japan. The book stresses the importance of introducing a brand-new policy of central and local government, and analyses why these policies have not been executed effectively in the local society. In addition to the economy-oriented policy and spirit of the Chinese nation, which are the main causes, this book also highlights shortcomings in the inspection system, information management, and the extremely low degree of public participation as important aspects to focus on in order to tackle the current problems. The individual chapters will help readers to understand the environmental issues in China in depth, and provide guidance on resolving the issues in China and in developing countries that are now or soon will be facing the challenge of combining economic growth and environmental improvement. Air, water and soil pollution are serious challenges in China. The deterioration of the environment often leads to rioting that influences social stability, which is also a great concern to foreign investors. This book will be of interest to a professional audience such as policymakers, journalists, members of environmental NGOs, managers and employees who do business with China, as well as academic researchers and students.
The study’s recommendations describe institutional elements in the context of electric power sector regulation and has the objective to increase the understanding of the interdependencies of the institutional elements. In future work, the study results might be employed for designing very specific regulatory policies. The recommendations developed in this study focus primarily on the regulatory framework for smart grids and contains a quite detailed description of how the German electricity markets evolved. It also focuses on the effects of ambitiously expanding generation capacities of renewable energy sources (RES) on established electricity markets. The presented evidence will provide insights on how the regulatory framework in China could be designed to foster smart grids developments in the context of establishing electricity markets and expanding RES generation capacities.