This book analyses European higher education policies and their three main drivers: the European Commission, the European Court of Justice and the building of the European Higher Education Area through the Bologna Process. Central to the volume is the issue of European institutions’ intervention in higher education: building a common area for higher education in a domain protected by subsidiarity is no easy task, and one that must consider the supra-national, national and institutional levels that all play a role in policy implementation. In this volume, the editors and contributors navigate within the tensions between the establishment of an internal market on the one hand and national sovereignty on the other. This volume will surely be of interest and value to those studying and working in the area of higher education policy and understanding relationships between European institutions and member states.
Since 1999 European higher education has been engaged in the most radical reform of its 900 years of history. This volume brings together a group of higher education researchers across Europe and looks into the implementation of the Bologna Process in the countries often attributed a peripheral status. In addition to cultural and political issues, the volume pays particular attention to the role of students as well as the changing position of the intellectuals under its impact.
Measures of education policy with aims relating to external affairs that are taken by the EU and not by nation states have barely been considered in academia although their number and financial scope have been growing steadily. These measures, as well as those from other areas, are part of each trade agreement of the EU and serve the purpose of influencing third countries. However, the dynamic inherent to the educational sector differs crucially from the one of other areas. By levering out the mechanisms of unilateral transfer of norms this cooperation facilitates – though contrary to its original purpose of the expansion of the EU's influence, the creation of transnational spaces in the long run.
In March 2010, the European Higher Education Area was officially launched, proclaiming the culmination of a ten-year timeframe projected at Bologna in 1999, when the education ministers of 29 European states signed a declaration that would fundamentally influence the future of their higher education systems. Forty-seven countries, including all EU Member States and other countries as far afield as Kazakhstan, now take part in the so-called 'Bologna Process'. Remarkably, this vast enterprise, which has led to rapid and sweeping changes in almost all higher education systems in Europe, has taken place outside the framework of the European Union and the Council of Europe. In fact, as this important legal analysis shows, it appears that with the Bologna Process the Member States have tried to sidestep the EU's growing influence on higher education. Although the Bologna Process has generated an impressive literature addressing what it might mean, where it suddenly came from, and how it has become so powerful, until now the legal implications of the process, and its tense relationship with EU law, have been left almost entirely unexamined. This work fills that gap. Among the often controversial issues raised are the following: ; avoidance of the democratically legitimate procedures of the EU's institutional framework for cultural reasons connected with state sovereignty; the scope of EU legal competence for various kinds of activities in the educational sector; specific areas of overlap between EU law and the Bologna Process and their implications; voluntary intergovernmental cooperation as a paradigmatic global shift of internationalization policies in education; the idea that the university is being redefined, from a social institution to an industry; the increasingly influential role in the process, by means of funding and coordination, of the European Commission; financial support programmes and devices to enhance credit and degree recognition; students as recipients of services; and teachers and the free movement of workers. The author describes how the scope of the Bologna Process was significantly broadened during a series of meetings during the decade, analyses the relevance of the case law of the European Court of Justice and provides a detailed description of the adoption of the process into the national laws of France, Germany and the United Kingdom. A concluding normative assessment scrutinizes the process on the basis of democracy, transparency and accountability. As the first study of the legitimacy of Bologna from a European law perspective - and by extension of the 'Europeanization' of higher education, including the role of the EU, EU law, and law in general - this is a critically important contribution to a contentious debate that clearly holds great significance for the future of law and society. Educators and education policymakers are sure to read and study it with interest.
This fascinating book provides a theoretically informed and empirically rich study of the evolution of European education policy since 1973, highlighting the crucial role that ideas have played in shaping the policy. -Michelle Cini, Professor of European Politics, University of Bristol, UK A comprehensive, compelling analysis of European education policy covering almost 50 years. Marina Cino Pagliarello tracks down painstakingly the role of cognitive structures in framing issues and identifying solutions, and how policy beliefs fit with the broader ideological presuppositions of the time. An original interpretation of education policy that will be read by policy analysts, political scientists, and sociologists. -Claudio M Radaelli, Professor of Comparative Public Policy, UCL, UK This book analyses the transformation of European Education Policy from 1973 to 2020. In doing so, it offers a unique insight into the changes of European education from a predominantly national concern to a supranational policy framework, driven by an economic discourse concerning productivity and employability. The book shows that the idea of the "Europe of Knowledge" did not originate in the Lisbon Strategy of 2000, but rather was the result of a gradual development that started in the mid-1980s. This begun with the establishment of a specific problem definition of education as a solution for Europes lack of competitiveness, a definition that was incrementally constructed by the European Commission and the European business community. Highlighting significant and unexplored questions such as the role of European transnational business in education and the role of the "problem entrepreneur" in defining policy issues, this book will provide a comprehensive perspective on European Education Policy that will be of interest to all students of European Politics, Education Policy, and Public Policy. Marina Cino Pagliarello is Lecturer in Political Economy at the University of Essex, Associate Lecturer at UCL, and Research Associate for LSE Consulting. She has worked as an education policy researcher and specialist with national/international organisations and governments for over 15 years. Her research focuses on the role of political and economic actors in shaping public policies.
Romania hosts the 2012 Bologna / European Higher Education Area Ministerial Conference and the Third Bologna Policy Forum. In preparation for these meetings, The Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI) organised the Future of Higher Education - Bologna Process Researchers’ Conference (FOHE-BPRC) in Bucharest on 17-19 October 2011, with the support of the European University Association (EUA) and the Romanian National Committee for UNESCO. The conference brought the voices of researchers into international-level policy making in higher education. The results of the conference are presented in this book. Until now, empirical evidence supporting policies and reforms in higher education has often been a matter of local or regional focus. The development of a pan-European process in higher education policy drives a need to explore wider research topics on which to base policies. This book offers an unprecedented opportunity for higher education researchers to interact and contribute to the political process shaping the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), and to national policy agendas in more than 100 participant countries for the 2012 ministerial events. The book collects more than 50 articles focusing on vital issues in European higher education. These are arranged in sections addressing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) Principles; Teaching and Learning; Quality Assurance; Mobility; Higher Education Governance in the EHEA; Funding of Higher Education; Diversification of Higher Education Missions; Higher Education Futures and Foresight.
This book discusses and analyses global policies and practices aimed at promoting equity in higher education participation and attainment. Although the massification of higher education systems has facilitated the participation of students from deprived backgrounds, socioeconomic inequalities persist in access to the most prestigious institutions and programmes. Privileged students benefit from a number of advantages in the competition for selective and scarce places: access to information, lower aversion to debt, higher expectations, better previous schooling and higher academic achievement. The chapters present a critical analysis of equity policies in different countries with or without affirmative action policies, within a context of neoliberal policies or within a social democratic model and the reasons why they have failed to promote equity and fairness, preventing students from achieving their full educational potential. Orlanda Tavares is a researcher at the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education(A3ES) and at the Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES), Portugal. Carla Sa is Assistant Professor at the University of Minho, Portugal and researcher at the Centre for Research in Economics and Management and the Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES), Portugal. Cristina Sin is a researcher at the Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education (A3ES) and at the Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES), Portugal. Alberto Amaral is Professor Emeritus at the University of Porto, Portugal and a researcher at the Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES), Portugal.
This is a story of the EC at work over 50 years, seen from the perspective of a developing European higher education policy. The book provides a rich background narrative to current strategic efforts to develop the Europe of Knowledge, and to the Bologna Process. Its analytic interest in ideas and individual 'policy entrepreneurs' underpins the story and advances understanding of the EU policy process and of the phenomenon of policy entrepreneurship.
This book offers an empirical and theoretical account of the mode of governance that characterizes the Bologna Process. In addition, it shows how the reform materializes and is translated in everyday working life among professors and managers in higher education. It examines the so-called Open Method of Coordination as a powerful actor that uses “soft governance” to advance transnational standards in higher education. The book shows how these standards no longer serve as tools for what were once human organizational, national or international, regulators. Instead, the standards have become regulators themselves – the faceless masters of higher education. By exploring this, the book reveals the close connections between the Bologna Process and the EU regarding regulative and monitoring techniques such as standardizations and comparisons, which are carried out through the Open Method of Coordination. It suggests that the Bologna Process works as a subtle means to circumvent the EU’s subsidiarity principle, making it possible to accomplish a European governance of higher education despite the fact that education falls outside EU’s legislative reach. The book’s research interest in translation processes, agency and power relations among policy actors positions it in studies on policy transfer, policy borrowing and globalization. However, different from conventional approaches, this study draws on additional interpretive frameworks such as new materialism.