This book is for anyone trying to master the intricate relationship between eye movement disorders and their underlying neuroanatomy and pathophysiology, and for everyone who needs a quick reference for the less familiar clinical problems in these areas. It fills a great void in the ophthalmology and neurology literature by presenting the complete range of eye movement disorders in a full-color, highly illustrated format along with concise-yet-comprehensive explanations.
There is perhaps no area of neuro-ophthalmology that is advancing more rapidly with respect to an understanding of its anatomy and physiology than the ocular motor system. For this reason, it is difficult not only to keep up with the latest information concerning the basic mechanisms involved in the control of eye movements but also to remain up to date regarding the pathophysiology of specific disorders of eye movement. The material in this book is derived from a two-day course on eye movements held in The Netherlands in 1986. The course was designed as an introduction to the normal ocular motor system and to disorders of eye movements and was aimed toward orthoptists, ophthalmolo gists, optometrists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons. The chapters in this book were compiled by a trio of experts in the field of eye movements and contain discussions of anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system, techniques of examination of patients with diplopia, and pathophysiology of specific disorders of ocular motility. Many of the authors of these chapters are among the most active investigators of eye movements in the world today, and their comments thus reflect the latest information in the field. This text is both basic and com prehensive and thus has something for everyone, from the student just beginning a study of the ocular motor system to the seasoned 'veteran' who wishes to know the latest information regarding central ocular motor control mechanisms. Neil R.
In Eye Movement Disorders in Clinical Practice, a leading expert with over thirty years of teaching experience in neurology and neuro-ophthalmology offers comprehensive instruction on the diagnosis and treatment of all varieties of eye movement disorders. This important new text reflects the importance of correlating clinical signs of disorders in the oculomotor system with their neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic architecture. With its focus on signs and symptoms, the book advances lesion localization of eye movement disorders as the central clinical concern. The reader is also presented with a fresh review of bedside examination techniques in the ER, ICU, and walk-in clinic; productive ways of taking a clinical history; sign interpretation; source lesion localization; and, where appropriate, therapy. Unlike most of the titles on eye movement disorders, this book's chapters are arranged according to objective signs - like ptosis, neuromuscular syndromes, dizziness, vertigo, and syndromes of the medulla - rather than disease entities. This emphasis on the topographic analysis of symptoms and signs is contrary to the prevailing clinical approach in which responsibility for therapy typically drives the clinician to arrive at an etiological diagnosis as rapidly as possible. At risk in this process is nothing less than the art of clinical medicine. One of the aims of this book is to reverse this process, and move clinicians back to the observation and interpretation of signs. The text features over 100 clinical cases, each one challenging the reader to determine the neuroanatomical location of the patient's lesion. This exercise provides the anatomical guidance needed to make critical diagnostic and management decisions in patients who often present with abnormal eye movements. Dynamic and intellectually stimulating, Eye Movement Disorders in Clinical Practice is essential for any reader wanting to better understand eye movement disorders.
This new edition of Leigh and Zee's The Neurology of Eye Movements is available as an enhanced edition for the first time. Your purchase of the print version includes access to the online version via Oxford Medicine Online. By activating your unique access code, you can discover more than 200videos, view and enlarge nearly 250 high resolution images, and annotate the work for future personal reference. The 5th edition of The Neurology of Eye Movements has two interrelated parts. The first comprises a modern synthesis of the anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological substrate for eye movements, including current views on the reflexive and voluntary control of gaze. This synthesis is based onelectrophysiological and inactivation studies in macaque, and behavioural studies in humans that incorporate functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in normals, and clinicopathological studies in patients with neurological, visual, or vestibular disorders. Sophisticatedexperimental paradigms have been applied to both species to explore aspects of cognition, memory, volition, and reward. This large body of research has demonstrated the power of eye movements as experimental tools. The second part of the book applies this synthesis to the clinical and laboratoryevaluation of patients with abnormal eye movements due to a broad range of disorders - from muscular dystrophy, and genetic disorders, to dementia, including visual and vestibular conditions. By placing links to figures, tables, boxes, and videos, a synthesis of basic research and clinical findings is provided, that may shed new light on disease processes and provide insights on normal brain function.
Eye Movement Disorders, by Dr. Agnes Wong, fills a great void in the Ophthalmology and Neurology literature by presenting eye movement disorders in a full-color, highly illustrative format. This text explains eye movement disorders in a concise yet comprehensive manner, which makes it an excellent reference book and an outstanding learning text for anyone trying to master the intricate relationship between eye movement disorders, and their underlying neuroanatomy and pathophysiology. Its easy-to-read and user-friendly approach will appeal to specialists in Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery who need a rapid reference on less familiar clinical problems. Key features include: Provides a coherent, concise, and easy to assimilate description and explanation of different eye movement disorders Presents over 100 full-color clinical photographs, radiographs, and color illustrations highlighting pertinent anatomy and brain pathways Highlights key information and important features through boxes, tables, and algorithms
A comprehensive book that reviews advances in ocular motor research on topics of general interest, rare, specialized or unique conditions, and pertinent basic neuroscience. A rare collection with contributions from basic neuroscientists, neurologists, and ophthalmologists. Includes dedicated chapters on mathematical models, pharmacotherapy, neuromodulation, motion perception, visual influence on eye movement, physiology of strabismus, and microsaccades. This book is dedicated to David Robinson - one of the pioneers of contemporary ocular motor and vestibular neuroscience.
The first new edition of Clinical Management of Binocular Vision in five years has been updated--across all chapters--with new guidelines and protocols based on the latest research in the field. You'll learn how to perform current, clinically accurate assessments, diagnoses, and therapies for a wide range of conditions. Each disorder is tackled in detail, touching on common symptoms, instrumentation, available treatment options, and more. New for this edition: 43 videos demonstrating proper diagnostic techniques and therapeutic procedures. Now with new information on concussion-related vision disorders, including techniques on preventive treatments. Formatted for easy reading, with succinct and bulleted text, numerous figures and illustrations, and step-by-step instructions. True-to-life case studies help you apply what you've read in a real-world clinical setting. Ideal for faculty, students who are new to the field, and veteran optometrists who need a refresh or easily accessible quick-reference. Enrich Your Ebook Reading Experience Read directly on your preferred device(s), such as computer, tablet, or smartphone. Easily convert to audiobook, powering your content with natural language text-to-speech.
Purpose: Due to the neurological aspects of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the sensitivity of eye movements to neurological issues, eye tracking has the potential to be an objective biomarker with higher accuracy in diagnosis than current clinical standards. Currently when PD is diagnosed clinically, there is an accuracy of 74% when diagnosed by a general practitioner and 82% when diagnosed by a movement disorder specialist. This study was designed to: 1. Assess eye movements as a potential biomarker for Parkinson's Disease. 2. Determine if eye movements can distinguish between Parkinson's Disease and commonly confounded movement disorders with parkinsonian symptoms. 3. Determine if the eye movements of Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder (RBD) patients who will likely convert to PD are distinguishable from healthy controls and if RBD patients have eye movements with similar features to PD. Methods: The eye movements of 160 subjects (43 healthy controls, 63 PD, 31 REM Behavior Disorder, and 22 Other Parkinsonisms) were recorded at 500 Hz and analyzed. Each subject performed five eye tracking tasks that included reflexive saccades, inhibition of reflexive saccades, predictive saccades, and reading. Based on an analysis of selected eye movement measurement parameters, a multivariable logistic regression model was developed that compared: PD vs. Control, PD vs. "Other" PD vs RBD, and Control vs RBD. The resulting predictive model was then assessed for accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: After screening, the most statistically significant predictors that were included in the final multivariate model were: Site, Sex, Age, Age squared, UPDRS Score, mean absolute fixation velocity (Horizontal Step Task), saccadic duration, average saccadic velocity, and mean fixation velocity (Predictive Task). The model predicted with an accuracy of: 92% for Controls, 88% for PD, 86% for RBD, and 68% for Other Parkinsonisms. The model was best at distinguishing between PD and Other Parkinsomisms with an accuracy of 89% and RBD and Controls with an accuracy of 88%. Conclusion: This research found that specific combinations of eye tracking parameters from simple tasks can be used to distinguish between PD and commonly confounded movement disorders with parkinsonism symptoms. The model's ability to distinguish between groups indicates that in a confirmatory study we should have relatively high accuracy in discriminating between groups. This model is able to accurately distinguish Controls from RBDs, however due to an insufficient number of follow-up visits to date, the current study is unable to confirm if the RBDs tested will convert to PD. With such high error rates in diagnosing PD clinically, this model is a potentially beneficial and could serve as an easy screening tool to add to the suite of diagnostic tests and improve clinician's ability to diagnose accurately.
The field of movement disorders is relatively broad, encompassing disorders of increased movement, such as tremors, dystonia, and tics, to disorders characterized by a paucity of movement, such as Parkinson's disease. Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and our treatment options are expanding at a rapid pace. This expansion ranges from the medical and surgical advances in treating Parkinson's disease to the flood of genetic abnormalities that have now been found to cause various movement disorders. Although many patients are seen by the movement disorders specialist in neurology clinics around the country, most of these patients receive their followup care from a primary care physician or "general" neurologist who must be versed in the character istics and treatment plans of this diverse group of disorders. The major goal of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for the Practicing Physician is to distill this immense amount of information and to educate the practitioner about the many facets of the movement disorders field. We believe that this book fills a large void, since most texts on movement disorders are more detailed and geared toward the specialist. We have asked the chapter authors to emphasize the clinical characteristics of each disorder, discuss the differential diagnosis and the diagnostic testing, and then outline the various treatment options, as if they were teaching during a preceptorship in their clinic.