Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: UOM:39015039887305

Category: Medical

Page: 106

View: 661

This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences?including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity?and the ethical, organizational, and policy issues surrounding such research. Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity discusses the potential uses of such collection, such as providing insight into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.
Genomic Diversity

Author: Surinder Singh Papiha

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461542636

Category: Social Science

Page: 246

View: 179

One of the major themes of human population genetics is assaying genetic variation in human populations. The ultimate goal of this objective is to understand the extent of genetic diversity and the use of this knowledge to reconstruct our evolutionary history. The discipline had undergone a revolutionary transition with the advent of molecular techniques in the 1980s. With this shift, statistical methods have also been developed to perceive the biological and molecular basis of human genetic variation. Using the new perspectives gained during the above transition, this volume describes the applications of molecular markers spanning the autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial genome in the analysis of human diversity in contemporary populations. This is the first reference book of its kind to bring together data from these diverse sets of markers for understanding evolutionary histories and relationships of modern humans in a single volume.
Human Genetic Diversity

Author: Julian C. Knight

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199227693

Category: Medical

Page: 501

View: 412

This book describes the remarkable progress which has been made in defining the extent and nature of human genetic variation. It provides a framework for understanding how research in this area is revolutionising our knowledge of human origins and the genetic basis of disease, as well as common traits such as obesity.
Discuss the distribution of genetic diversity found in human and chimpanzee populations

Author: Christine Langhoff

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783638148160

Category: Science

Page: 9

View: 751

Essay from the year 2002 in the subject Biology - Genetics / Gene Technology, grade: 1.1 (A), Oxford University (New College), 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Discuss the distribution of genetic diversity found in human and chimpanzee populations by Christine Langhoff In the mid-1980s one of the most important studies by Sibley and Ahlquist on our relationship to apes and monkeys found that our closest relatives are the chimpanzees and the bonobos. The study of genetic diversity within both human and chimpanzee populations has been of major interest as researchers have been and are still trying to find out about the differences in genetic diversity between the two otherwise so closely related species. The genetic diversity refers to the amount of genetic variation found in a population. It has been discovered that chimpanzees have a greater total genetic diversity than humans, but that there are exceptions such as in the major histocompatibility complex in which chimpanzees display a low genetic diversity. I am going to explore how the total genetic diversity is surveyed in and distributed among human and chimpanzee populations and I am going to compare their levels of total diversity. I am also going to explore whether different types of polymorphism reveal the same patterns of distribution within and among populations. There are both experimental and statistical methods for studying genetic diversity within and between populations. The experimental methods include electrophoresis and the Polymerase Chain Reaction. Electrophoresis has mainly been used for proteins (primarily for enzymes) as it is easily determined when an enzyme has an amino acid replacement resulting in a difference in its overall mobility (i.e. an allozyme) because it will have an altered electrophoretic mobility. DNA restriction fragments can also be separated by electrophoresis and by using the Southern Blot method these can be made visible in order to be studied. Genetic differences resulting in the presence or absence of restriction sites can be identified because they change the length of characteristic restriction fragments. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is another method used in surveying the genetic diversity as it is extremely useful for amplifying specific DNA sequences such as the many DNA polymorphisms that are studied. (Hartl and Clark, 1997) [...]
An Introduction to Molecular Anthropology

Author: Mark Stoneking

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119050872

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 509

Molecular anthropology uses molecular genetic methods to address questions and issues of anthropological interest. More specifically, molecular anthropology is concerned with genetic evidence concerning human origins, migrations, and population relationships, including related topics such as the role of recent natural selection in human population differentiation, or the impact of particular social systems on patterns of human genetic variation. Organized into three major sections, An Introduction to Molecular Anthropology first covers the basics of genetics – what genes are, what they do, and how they do it – as well as how genes behave in populations and how evolution influences them. The following section provides an overview of the different kinds of genetic variation in humans, and how this variation is analyzed and used to make evolutionary inferences. The third section concludes with a presentation of the current state of genetic evidence for human origins, the spread of humans around the world, the role of selection and adaptation in human evolution, and the impact of culture on human genetic variation. A final, concluding chapter discusses various aspects of molecular anthropology in the genomics era, including personal ancestry testing and personal genomics. An Introduction to Molecular Anthropology is an invaluable resource for students studying human evolution, biological anthropology, or molecular anthropology, as well as a reference for anthropologists and anyone else interested in the genetic history of humans.
Genetic Diversity and Human Behavior

Author: J.N. Spuhler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351517928

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 416

Genetic differences in humans, like those between individuals of any animal or plant species and those between species, are all products of the evolutionary development of the living world. These differences, with their behavioral consequences, can only be understood in the light of evolution. Our understanding of evolution, however, has itself evolved. The Darwin- Wallace theory of evolution appeared in the nineteenth century. Since then, development of evolutionary thought has gone through several stages. The contributions in this volume describe those stages.
Evolution of the Human Genome II

Author: Naruya Saitou

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9784431569046

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 201

This two-volume set provides a general overview of the evolution of the human genome; The first volume overviews the human genome with descriptions of important gene groups. This second volume provides up-to-date, concise yet ample knowledge on the genome evolution of modern humans. It comprises twelve chapters divided into two parts discussing “Non-neutral Evolution on Human Genes” (Part I) and “Evolution of Modern Human Populations” (Part II.) The most significant feature of this book is the continent-wise discussion of modern human dispersal using human genomic data in Part II. Recent results such as introgression of paleogenomes to modern humans, new methods such as computer simulation of global human dispersals, and new information on genes for humanness will be of particular interest to the readers. Since the euchromatin regions of the human genome was sequenced in 2003, a huge number of research papers were published on modern human evolution for a variety of populations. It is now time to summarize these achievements. This book stands out as the most comprehensive book on the modern human evolution, focusing on genomic points of view with a broad scope. Primary target audiences are researchers and graduate students in evolutionary biology.
The Genetics of Human Populations

Author: Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486406930

Category: Science

Page: 994

View: 846

Comprehensive, advanced treatment of nature and source of inherited characteristics, with treatment of mathematical techniques. Mendelian populations, mutations, polymorphisms, genetic demography, much more. Emphasizes interpretation of data in relation to theoretical models.
Human Population Genomics

Author: Kirk E. Lohmueller

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030616465

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 269

This textbook provides a concise introduction and useful overview of the field of human population genomics, making the highly technical and contemporary aspects more accessible to students and researchers from various fields. Over the past decade, there has been a deluge of genetic variation data from the entire genome of individuals from many populations. These data have allowed an unprecedented look at human history and how natural selection has impacted humans during this journey. Simultaneously, there have been increased efforts to determine how genetic variation affects complex traits in humans. Due to technological and methodological advances, progress has been made at determining the architecture of complex traits. Split in three parts, the book starts with the basics, followed by more advanced and current research. The first part provides an introduction to essential concepts in population genetics, which are relevant for any organism. The second part covers the genetics of complex traits in humans. The third part focuses on applying these techniques and concepts to genetic variation data to learn about demographic history and natural selection in humans. This new textbook aims to serve as a gateway to modern human population genetics research for those new to the field. It provides an indispensable resource for students, researchers and practitioners from disparate areas of expertise.
Human Genetic Diversity

Author: Julian C. Knight

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191572586

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 522

The secrets of our genetic heritage are finally being unlocked. The massive scientific effort to sequence the human genome is in fact just the beginning of a long journey as the extraordinary genetic diversity that exists between individuals becomes clear. Work in this field promises much: to understand our evolutionary origins, to define us as individuals, to predict our risk of disease and to more effectively understand, treat and prevent illness. Contemporary genetic research is allowing the basis of both rare inherited disorders and common multifactorial diseases like asthma and diabetes to be more clearly defined. Huge investments are being made and great advances have been achieved, but the challenges remain daunting. This book provides an authoritative overview of this topical and very rapidly advancing field of biomedical research. Human Genetic Diversity describes the major classes of genetic variation and their functional consequences. A combination of cutting-edge research and landmark historical studies illustrate developments in the field, the rationale for current studies and likely future directions. Major structural variants at a chromosomal level are described, as well as copy number variation and sequence level genetic diversity. Evidence of selective pressures in human populations and insights into human evolution are illustrated. The book describes the development of linkage analysis and more recently genome-wide association studies to define the genetic basis of disease, current approaches to defining functional causative variants and the emerging fields of pharmacogenomics and individualised medicine.
Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309059312

Category: Science

Page: 101

View: 472

This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differencesâ€"including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversityâ€"and the ethical, organizational, and policy issues surrounding such research. Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity discusses the potential uses of such collection, such as providing insight into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.