This volume contains selected proceedings of the conferences held at Kirchberg, August 26, 1984 and Essen, November 2124, 1984 devoted to Karl Bühler's Theory of Language. Both conferences took place exactly fifty years after the publication of Bühler's masterpiece. However, it was felt necessary to bring renewed attention to Bühler's work in order to highlight its importance. The contributions in this volume, all in the original German language, focus on a wide range of perspectives: biographical, psychological, sociological, semiotic and linguistic.
This white paper is part of a series that promotes knowledge about language technology and its potential. It addresses educators, journalists, politicians, language communities and others. The availability and use of language technology in Europe varies between languages. Consequently, the actions that are required to further support research and development of language technologies also differ for each language. The required actions depend on many factors, such as the complexity of a given language and the size of its community. META-NET, a Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission, has conducted an analysis of current language resources and technologies. This analysis focused on the 23 official European languages as well as other important national and regional languages in Europe. The results of this analysis suggest that there are many significant research gaps for each language. A more detailed expert analysis and assessment of the current situation will help maximise the impact of additional research and minimize any risks. META-NET consists of 54 research centres from 33 countries that are working with stakeholders from commercial businesses, government agencies, industry, research organisations, software companies, technology providers and European universities. Together, they are creating a common technology vision while developing a strategic research agenda that shows how language technology applications can address any research gaps by 2020.
In former times, the study of language was rarely pursued in isolation, and many of the other intellectual concerns that used to be intertwined with language study have long been on the record of historians of linguistics. The present volume is the first to probe into an association of linguistics that has so far been neglected: that with the study of the earth. The relations between linguistics and geology were intimate and manifold as both sciences were emerging in the 18th and 19th century. Highlighted in the contributions to this volume are biographical and institutional contacts, the joint interest in origins and very early developments and in the proper methods of acquiring knowledge about these, common structural and evolutionary concepts, and analogous problems in the classification of domains as fuzzy as languages and rocks.
Introduction to English Language Teaching offers a general view of all the major subjects in the teaching of foreign languages starting from linguistic abilities to questions of performance, learning and bilingual teaching as well as to a discussion of the initial work on forms. Introduction to English Language Teaching gibt einen Überblick über alle wesentlichen Themen des Fremdsprachenunterrichts - angefangen von den sprachlichen Fertigkeiten oder Fragen zur Leistungsbewertung, über biliguales Lehren und Lernen bis hin zur Diskussion grundschulspezifischer Arbeitsweisen.
This text is designed specifically to meet the needs of preservice teachers who have had little experience working in middle-grade classrooms. Three ideas are central: * teaching language arts at the middle level is a complex activity that demands expertise in the use of a variety of strategies, * reading and writing are key processes of language arts study, but so are speaking, listening, and viewing/visually representing, and * teaching the processes of effective communication is crucial, but middle school students must also begin to learn the content of the field--literature, language, and media. Teaching Language Arts in Middle Schools gives balanced attention to various teaching strategies, processes, and content, demonstrating how all of these connect to improve students' abilities to communicate. In this text: *Research and theory are summarized and applied to practice *A non-prescriptive approach is integrated with practical information *Debates in the field are acknowledged *Additional reading and research are emphasized *The author's voice and point of view are explicit
Childly Language explores how attitudes and cultural assumptions about children and childhood are revealed in contemporary English. It addresses such questions as: How is concern for children's safety and welfare reflected in the vocabulary and grammar of contemporary English? and When we say that an adult is being 'childish', what are we saying about the characteristics of children?