Legume Nitrogen Fixation in a Changing Environment

Author: Saad Sulieman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319062129

Category: Science

Page: 133

View: 251

The world population will grow more rapidly during the few coming years. This must be accompanied by a parallel increase in the agricultural production to secure adequate food. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to chemical nitrogen fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, a microbiological process which converts atmospheric N2 into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Among these renewable sources, N2-fixing legumes offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Environmental factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising CO2 are known to dramatically affect the symbiotic process and thus play a part in determining the actual amount of nitrogen fixed by a given legume in the field. Understanding how nodule N2 fixation responds to the environment is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining sustainability in the context of global change. In this thoughtful and provocative new Brief, we provide critical information on how current and projected future changes in the environment will affect legume growth and their symbiotic N2 fixing capabilities. Each section reviews the main drivers of environmental change on the legume performance that include drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO2, and soil acidity. Importantly we discuss the molecular approaches to the analysis of the stress response in legumes and the possible biotechnological strategies to overcome their detrimental effects.
Climate Change and Management of Cool Season Grain Legume Crops

Author: Shyam Singh Yadav

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048137091

Category: Science

Page: 460

View: 975

This book covers all aspect of legume production management technologies, plant ecological response, nutrients management, biological nitrogen fixation, molecular approaches, potential cultivars, biodiversity management under climate change. Also covered are various aspects of legume management under climate change such as, production management technology, ecology & adaptation, diseases, and international trade; physiology and crops response to nutrients, drought, salinity, and water use efficiency; Biodiversity management, molecular approaches and biological Nitrogen fixation; climate change and strategies. This book presents the most comprehensive and up to date review of research on different cool season grain legume crops, nutrients management, biotic and abiotic stresses management, agronomical approaches for drought management, salinity, drought, weed management and water use efficiency, impact on international trade around the world.
Legume Nitrogen Fixation in Soils with Low Phosphorus Availability

Author: Saad Sulieman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319557298

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 287

View: 420

This thoughtful and provocative book provides a concise, up-to-date presentation of how current and projected future phosphorus scarcity will affect legume growth and their symbiotic nitrogen-fixing capabilities. It is a timely examination of the physiological and molecular responses of nodules to phosphorous deficiency in attempt to identify common principles. Students and researchers in the many disciplines related to crop productivity will find this title an exciting contribution in the area of plant stress physiology. The knowledge in this volume can also aid plant breeders, particularly through new methods of genetic engineering, in developing unique and adaptive cultivars with higher symbiotic efficiency. The awareness of the rapidly rising world population must translate into a parallel increase in agricultural production in order to sustain the growing population both now and in the future. Hence, the demand for food crops to produce proteins and vegetable oil for human consumption is going to increase considerably during the coming years. The essential role of legumes in agriculture is well-recognized, given the abundant levels of proteins and oils found in plants along with their enormous contribution to the sustainability of agricultural systems and human health. The capacity of legumes to fix nitrogen (N2) in partnership with rhizobia provides an input-saving and resource-conserving alternative, thereby reducing the need for chemical fertilizers while enhancing overall crop productivity. The use of N2-fixing legumes to produce plant proteins results in a substantial decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and therefore also in the agricultural effects to global warming. However, a major constraint to legume production is low soil phosphorus (P) availability, considering that an overwhelming majority of the world’s soils are classified as P-deficient. Low-P availability is especially problematic for legumes, since legume nodules responsible for N2 fixation have a high P requirement. Therefore, this book explains how nodule N2 fixation responds to low P availability, which is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining agricultural sustainability in the context of the global P crisis.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment

Author: Yi-Ping Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402035691

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 154

This volume covers all aspects of fundamental and applied nitrogen-fixation research, extending from biochemistry and chemistry through genetics, regulation and physiology to agricultural practice and environmental impact. It describes recent progress on studies of potential catalysts for nitrogen fixation; how the N2-fixing process is regulated in living cells; the use and impact of genetics and genomics on our understanding of the biological process; the wide variety of associations of nitrogen-fixing microbes with plants, including the formalized Rhizobium-legume and actinorrhizal associations as well as the less formalized associative and endophytic interactions; and the impact of nitrogen fixation in agriculture and forestry, including its effect on the environment. This volume provides an up-to-date referenced source, which can be readily accessed by all practicing and otherwise interested proponents of nitrogen fixation research, including those with related interests in the areas of plant and microbial science, genomics, plant-microbe interactions, genetics and regulation, plant growth and biocontrol, agriculture, forestry, ecology, taxonomy and evolution.
Environmental Stresses in Soybean Production

Author: Mohammad Miransari

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128017289

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 322

View: 898

Environmental Stress Conditions in Soybean Production: Soybean Production, Volume Two, examines the impact of conditions on final crop yield and identifies core issues and methods to address concerns. As climate and soil quality changes and issues continue to manifest around the world, methods of ensuring sustainable crop production is imperative. The care and treatment of the soil nutrients, how water availability and temperature interact with both soil and plant, and what new means of crop protection are being developed make this an important resource for those focusing on this versatile crop. The book is a complement to volume one, Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Soybean Production, providing further insights into crop protection. Presents insights for addressing specific environmental stress conditions in soybean production, including soil, atmospheric, and other contributing factors Facilitates translational methods based on stress factors from around the world Examines the future of soybean production challenges, including those posed by climate change Complements volume one, Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Soybean Production, providing further insights into crop protection
Microbial Mitigation of Stress Response of Food Legumes

Author: N. Amaresan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000047004

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 967

Microbial Mitigation of Stress Responses of Food Legumes provides knowledge on the impact of abiotic and biotic stress on the agriculture of grain legumes especially pulses and it critically reviews the cutting-edge research in exploring plant microbe interactions to mitigate the stress. It helps in understanding the fundamentals of microbial-mediated management of abiotic and biotic stress in grain legumes. Salient features:  Describes the usefulness of microbiome of plant/insects for enhancing the production of grain legumes  Focuses on recent advances in microbial methods for mitigating the stress and their application in sustainability of legume production  Provides a unique collection of microbial data for the improvement of legume productivity  Details microbial metabolites at the gene and molecule levels for plant stress management The reader will get all essential and updated information on various stress factors, crop responses, and microbial-mediated stress management for better food legume production.
Legumes for Soil Health and Sustainable Management

Author: Ram Swaroop Meena

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811302534

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 539

View: 924

Sustainable management of soils is an important global issue of the 21st century. Feeding roughly 8 billion people with an environmentally sustainable production system is a major challenge, especially considering the fact that 10% of the world’s population at risk of hunger and 25% at risk of malnutrition. Accordingly, the 68th United Nations (UN) general assembly declared 2016 the “International Year of Pulses” to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of pulses in human nutrition and welfare. Likewise, the assembly declared the year 2015 as the “International Year of Soils” to promote awareness of the role of “healthy soils for a healthy life” and the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) has declared 2015-2024 as the International Decade of Soils. Including legumes in cropping systems is an important toward advancing soil sustainability, food and nutritional security without compromising soil quality or its production potential. Several textbooks and edited volumes are currently available on general soil fertility or on legumes but‚ to date‚ none have been dedicated to the study of “Legumes for Soil Health and Sustainable Management”. This is important aspect, as the soil, the epidermis of the Earth (geoderma)‚ is the major component of the terrestrial biosphere. This book explores the impacts of legumes on soil health and sustainability, structure and functioning of agro-ecosystems, agronomic productivity and food security, BNF, microbial transformation of soil N and P, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, biofertilizers, etc. With the advent of fertilizers, legumes have been sidelined since World War II, which has produced serious consequences for soils and the environment alike. Therefore, legume-based rational cropping/soil management practices must support environmentally and economically sustainable agroecosystems based on (sequential) rotation and intercropping considerations to restore soil health and sustainability. All chapters are amply illustrated with appropriately placed data, tables, figures, and photographs, and supported with extensive and cutting-edge references. The editors have provided a roadmap for the sustainable development of legumes for food and nutritional security and soil sustainability in agricultural systems, offering a unique resource for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, agronomy, ecology, and the environmental sciences.
Food Systems Resilience

Author:

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9781803550039

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 340

This book addresses some of the major challenges of food systems associated with a diversity of agricultural contexts and priorities. It contributes to the conversation on global food and nutrition security by unpacking the intertwined connections between food system resilience, food policies, and global food markets. The contributing authors provide careful analyses of how shocks to food systems (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns) and crises to global food systems (e.g., the global food price crisis of 2008) have disrupted the food value chains in ways that undermine global initiatives to achieve food and nutrition security for all. The book is divided into two sections. Section 1 focuses on global food systems transformation with the goal of moving towards resilience. Two chapters in this section employ a global context approach to address the key factors undermining food systems’ resilience and sustainability. Section 2 presents case studies drawn from Africa, Asia, and Europe with different pathways for the transition to food systems resilience, highlighting the importance of policy approaches as well as smart and innovative strategies to ensure the production of nutritious foods at affordable costs, the reduction of food wastage, and the valorization of sub-products.
Global Climate Change and Terrestrial Invertebrates

Author: Scott N. Johnson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119070900

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 889

Invertebrates perform such vital roles in global ecosystems—and so strongly influence human wellbeing—that biologist E.O. Wilson was prompted to describe them as “little things that run the world.” As they are such powerful shapers of the world around us, their response to global climate change is also pivotal in meeting myriad challenges looming on the horizon—everything from food security and biodiversity to human disease control. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the latest scientific knowledge and contemporary theory relating to global climate change and terrestrial invertebrates. Featuring contributions from top international experts, this book explores how changes to invertebrate populations will affect human decision making processes across a number of crucial issues, including agriculture, disease control, conservation planning, and resource allocation. Topics covered include methodologies and approaches to predict invertebrate responses, outcomes for disease vectors and ecosystem service providers, underlying mechanisms for community level responses to global climate change, evolutionary consequences and likely effects on interactions among organisms, and many more. Timely and thought-provoking, Global Climate Change and Terrestrial Invertebrates offers illuminating insights into the profound influence the simplest of organisms may have on the very future of our fragile world.
Nitrogen in Agriculture

Author: Khan Amanullah

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789535137689

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 115

Nitrogen is the most yield-restraining nutrient in crop production globally. Efficient nitrogen management is one of the most important factor for improving nitrogen use efficiency, field crops productivity and profitability. Efficient use of nitrogen for crop production is therefore very important for increasing grain yield, maximizing economic return and minimizing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from the fields and nitrate (NO3) leaching to ground water. Integrated nitrogen management is a good strategy to improve plant growth, increase yield and yield components, grain quality and reduce environmental problems. Integrated nitrogen management (combined use of chemical + organic + bio-fertilizers) in field crop production is more resilient to climate change.
Managing Plant Production Under Changing Environment

Author: Mirza Hasanuzzaman

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811650598

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 477

View: 396

This comprehensive edited volume collects the most recent information with up-to-date citations, on the decrease in plant productivity under climatic changes and its link with global food security. The book emphasis on the crop management practices and recent advancement in the techniques for mitigating the negative effects of climate induced biotic and abiotic stress. It brings together 19 chapters developed by eminent researchers in the area of plant and environmental sciences. Global climate change is increasingly becoming a concern for future of agriculture. High levels of inorganic and organic pollutants and climatic stress adversely affects the sensitive and complex equation of natural resources and ecosystem services. To meet the increased food demand, plant productivity needs to be enhanced, therefore this book fills in the gap and brings together information on the physiological and molecular approaches for improving crop productivity. The book is resourceful reading material for researchers, faculty members, graduate and post graduate students of plant science, agriculture, agronomy, soil science, botany, Molecular biology and environmental science.
Abiotic Stress and Legumes

Author: Vijay Pratap Singh

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128153550

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 422

View: 821

Abiotic Stress and Legumes: Tolerance and Management is the first book to focus on these important factors in legume productivity. As a primary and increasingly important food source, efficient legume productivity relies on the plant's ability to effectively adapt to environmental challenges. The book takes a targeted approach to understanding the methods and means of ensuring survival and productivity of the legume plant. It illustrates the progress that has been made in managing abiotic stress effects in legumes, including the development of several varieties that show tolerance against abiotic stress with high yield using transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and ionomic approaches. Further, exogenous application of various stimulants, such as plant hormones, nutrients, sugars and polyamines has emerged as an alternative strategy to induce capability within legume plants to manage their productivity under abiotic stresses. This book thoroughly examines these emerging strategies and serves as an important resource for researchers, academicians, scientists, and those interested in enhancing their knowledge and aiding further research. Explores the progress made in managing abiotic stress, specifically with high yield legumes Highlights the molecular mechanisms related to acclimation Presents proven strategies and emerging approaches to guide additional research