Management of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the Development of More Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

Author: J.K. Ladha

Publisher: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

ISBN: 9780792334132

Category: Nature

Page: 300

View: 893

Reprinted from Plant and Soil, v.174, nos.1-2 (1995), this volume is devoted to discussions on the role of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in agricultural sustainability. Papers presented on BNF in crop forage and tree legumes are augmented with discussion of integrated farming systems involving BNF, soil and N management, and recycling of legume residues. BNF by non-legumes is discussed and attempts to transform cereals into nodulating plants are critically reviewed. Also described are advances in the development of new methodologies to understand symbiotic interactions and to assess N-2 fixation in the field; means of enhancing BNF through plant and soil management; breeding and selection; problems encountered in exploiting BNF under farmers' field conditions; and promising approaches to improve BNF exploitation. Lacks a subject index. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Agro-Ecological Intensification of Agricultural Systems in the African Highlands

Author: Bernard Vanlauwe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136292262

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 336

View: 485

There is an urgent need to increase agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa in a sustainable and economically-viable manner. Transforming risk-averse smallholders into business-oriented producers that invest in producing surplus food for sale provides a formidable challenge, both from a technological and socio-political perspective. This book addresses the issue of agricultural intensification in the humid highland areas of Africa – regions with relatively good agricultural potential, but where the scarce land resources are increasingly under pressure from the growing population and from climate change. In addition to introductory and synthesis chapters, the book focuses on four themes: system components required for agricultural intensification; the integration of components at the system level; drivers for adoption of technologies towards intensification; and the dissemination of complex knowledge. It provides case studies of improved crop and soil management for staple crops such as cassava and bananas, as well as examples of how the livelihoods of rural people can be improved. The book provides a valuable resource for researchers, development actors, students and policy makers in agricultural systems and economics and in international development. It highlights and addresses key challenges and opportunities that exist for sustainable agricultural intensification in the humid highlands of sub-Saharan Africa.
Opportunities for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Rice and Other Non-Legumes

Author: National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Pakistan)

Publisher: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

ISBN: 9780792345145

Category: Nature

Page: 226

View: 393

Proceedings of the Second Working Group Meeting of the Frontier Project on Nitrogen Fixation in Rice held in Faisalabad, Pakistan, 13-15 October 1996
Agriculturally Important Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture

Author: Vijay Singh Meena

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811053436

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 374

View: 851

This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channe ls. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Advances in Legumes for Sustainable Intensification

Author: Ram Swaroop Meena

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780323886000

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 728

View: 686

Advances in Legume-based Agroecoystem for Sustainable Intensification explores current research and future strategies for ensuring capacity growth and socioeconomic improvement through the utilization of legume crop cultivation and production in the achievement of sustainability development goals (SDGs). Sections cover the role of legumes in addressing issues of food security, improving nitrogen in the environment, environmental sustainability, economic-environmentally optimized systems, the importance and impact of nitrogen, organic production, and biomass potential, legume production, biology, breeding improvement, cropping systems, and the use of legumes for eco-friendly weed management. This book is an important resource for scientists, researchers and advanced students interested in championing the effective utilization of legumes for agronomic and ecological benefit. Focuses on opportunities for agricultural impact and sustainability Presents insights into both agricultural sustainability and eco-intensification Includes the impact of legume production on societal impacts such as health and wealth management
Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes

Author: K.A. Malik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401152327

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 769

Diazotrophic bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to plant-useable form and this input of nitrogen through biological fixation is of great agronomic importance. The contributions presented in this volume relate to free-living nitrogen fixers and the diazotrophs associated with plants. Symbiotic association of Frankia with non-legumes and cyanobacterial associations are also discussed. Research topics covered in this volume include the biochemistry and genetics of diazotrophs, recent developments in improvement of plant-microbe interactions and their molecular basis, the use of molecular probes in taxonomy and ecology of diazotrophs and reports on field applications, agronomic importance and improvement in methodologies for assessing their contribution to plants. This book provides valuable information not only for researchers working in the field of biological nitrogen fixation but also for biochemistry, molecular biologists, microbiologists and agronomists.
Resource Management in Rice Systems: Nutrients

Author: V. Balasubramanian

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401150781

Category: Nature

Page: 360

View: 249

Rice is the major staple food in Asia, and food security means rice security for most Asians. By the year 2025, we need to produce about 60% more rice than we do today to meet the growing demand. Efficient use of inputs is vital to safely produce the additional food from limited resources with minimal impact on the environment. This book reviews emerging knowledge-intensive technologies and decision aids for improved nutrient management in rice, technology adoption constraints at the farm level, and innovative approaches for field evaluation and promotion of new technologies to farmers. It is highly useful to rice scientists and development workers, students of agronomy, soil science, and plant nutrition, and crop consultants and extension workers in rice all over the world.
The Plant Family Fabaceae

Author: Mirza Hasanuzzaman

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811547522

Category: Science

Page: 541

View: 924

This book comprehensively introduces all aspects of the physiology, stress responses and tolerance to abiotic stresses of the Fabaceae plants. Different plant families have been providing food, fodder, fuel, medicine and other basic needs for the human and animal since the ancient time. Among the plant families Fabaceae have special importance for their agri-horticultural importance and multifarious uses apart from the basic needs. Interest in the response of Fabaceae plants toward abiotic stresses is growing considering the economic importance and the special adaptive mechanisms. Recent advances and developments in molecular and biotechnological tools has contributed to ease and wider this mission. This book provides up-to-date findings that will be of greater use for the students and researchers, particularly Plant Physiologists, Environmental Scientists, Biotechnologists, Botanists, Food Scientists and Agronomists, to get the information on the recent advances on this plant family in regard to physiology and stress tolerance.
Managing Organic Matter in Tropical Soils: Scope and Limitations

Author: Christopher Martius

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401721721

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 632

Soil organic matter is a reservoir for plant nutrients, provides water-holding capacity, stabilizes soil structure against compaction and erosion, and thus determines soil productivity. All agriculture to some degree depends on soil organic matter. It has long been known that soil organic matter declines when land is taken into cultivation, and that the productivity of new agricultural land is governed by fertility contributions from decomposing natural organic matter. The expansion of agriculture to ever new and more fragile lands, particularly in tropical and developing regions, causes environmental degradation with local effects on soil quality, regional effects on landscape integrity and water quality, and global effects on carbon cycles and the atmosphere. This book summarizes current knowledge of the properties and dynamics of soil organic matter in the tropics, its role in determining soil quality, its stability and turnover, and the options for management in the context of tropical landuse systems, for a readership of resource scientists, economists and advanced students. Maintenance of organic matter is critical for preventing land degradation. Case studies and practical applications are therefore an important part of the book, as are the exploration of future directions in research and management.
Nutrient Dynamics for Sustainable Crop Production

Author: Ram Swaroop Meena

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9789811386602

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 714

The cropping system is one of the important components of sustainable agriculture, since it provides more efficient nutrient cycling. As such, balanced fertilization must be based on the concept of sustainable crop production. Feeding the rapidly growing world population using environmentally sustainable production systems is a major challenge, especially in developing countries. A number of studies have highlighted the fact that degradation of the world's cultivated soils is largely responsible for low and plateauing yields. Soil is lost rapidly but only formed over millennia, and this represents the greatest global threat to nutrient dynamics in agriculture. This means that nutrient management is essential to provide food and nutritional security for current and future generations. Nutrient dynamics and soil sustainability imply the maintenance of the desired ecological balance, the enhancement and preservation of soil functions, and the protection of biodiversity above and below ground. Understanding the role of nutrient management as a tool for soil sustainability and nutritional security requires a holistic approach to a wide range of soil parameters (biological, physical, and chemical) to assess the soil functions and nutrient dynamics of a crop management system within the desired timescale. Further, best nutrient management approaches are important to advance soil sustainability and food and nutritional security without compromising the soil quality and productive potential. Sustainable management practices must allow environmentally and economically sustainable yields and restore soil health and sustainability. This book presents soil management approaches that can provide a wide range of benefits, including improved fertility, with a focus on the importance of nutrient dynamics. Discussing the broad impacts of nutrients cycling on the sustainability of soil and the cropping systems that it supports, it also addresses nutrient application to allow environmentally and economically sustainable agroecosystems that restore soil health. Arguing that balanced fertilization must be based on the concept of INM for a cropping system rather than a crop, it provides a roadmap to nutrient management for sustainability. This richly illustrated book features tables, figures and photographs and includes extensive up-to-date references, making it a valuable resource for policymakers and researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of Soil Science, Agronomy, Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
The Practice of Silviculture

Author: Mark S. Ashton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119270959

Category: Science

Page: 776

View: 754

The most up-to-date, comprehensive resource on silviculture that covers the range of topics and issues facing today’s foresters and resource professionals The tenth edition of the classic work, The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, includes the most current information and the results of research on the many issues that are relevant to forests and forestry. The text covers such timely topics as biofuels and intensive timber production, ecosystem and landscape scale management of public lands, ecosystem services, surface drinking water supplies, urban and community greenspace, forest carbon, fire and climate, and much more. In recent years, silvicultural systems have become more sophisticated and complex in application, particularly with a focus on multi-aged silviculture. There have been paradigm shifts toward managing for more complex structures and age-classes for integrated and complementary values including wildlife, water and open space recreation. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition covers a wide range of topics and challenges relevant to the forester or resource professional today. This full-color text offers the most expansive book on silviculture and: Includes a revised and expanded text with clear language and explanations Covers the many cutting-edge resource issues that are relevant to forests and forestry Contains boxes within each chapter to provide greater detail on particular silvicultural treatments and examples of their use Features a completely updated bibliography plus new photographs, tables and figures The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, Tenth Edition is an invaluable resource for students and professionals in forestry and natural resource management.