In Great Britain there existed a practice of naming steam locomotives. The names chosen covered many and varied subjects, however a large number of those represented direct links with military personnel, regiments, squadrons, naval vessels, aircraft, battles and associated historic events. For example, all but one member of the famous Royal Scot class were named in honor of British regiments. Also the Southern Railway created a Battle of Britain class of locomotives, which were named in recognition of Battle of Britain squadrons, airfields, aircraft and personnel. In addition, the Great Western Railway renamed some of its engines after Second World War aircraft. The tradition has continued into modern times as the newly built A1 class locomotive is named Tornado in recognition of the jet fighter aircraft of the same name. This generously illustrated publication highlights the relevant steam locomotives and additionally examines the origin of the military names.
In Great Britain there existed a practice of naming steam railway locomotives. The names chosen covered many and varied subjects, however a large number of those represented direct links with military personnel, regiments, squadrons, naval vessels, aircraft, battles and associated historic events. Memorably the Southern Railway (SR) created a Battle of Britain class of Light Pacific locomotives, which were named in recognition of Battle of Britain squadrons, airfields, aircraft and personnel. The Great Western Railway (GWR) renamed some of its express passenger Castle Class engines after Second World War aircraft. Names were displayed in varying styles on both sides of the locomotives, additionally some nameplates were adorned with ornate crests and badges. Long after the demise of mainline steam, rescued nameplates are still much sort after collectors' items, which when offered for sale command high prices. This generously illustrated publication highlights the relevant steam locomotives at work and explains the origins of the military names.
This book examines two sides of civil–military relations in developing countries. One is the place of civil-military relations within a state’s political and economic systems; the other is the role of the military on a state’s maintenance of peace and stability. The book thus proposes that the function of soldiers is not only to defend and deter, but also to develop. The chapters provide a comprehensive analysis of civil-military relationship with comparative cases on Botswana, China, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, and The Arab Spring Countries of the Middle East including Bahrain, Sudan, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen and Libya. Each chapter analyzes the historical, cultural and political factors that shape the direction of the man on the white horse (military elite) and the politician. In doing so, this book reveals the potential impact of the nature of civil military relations on democratization, political and economic development, and on regional/international security. Dhirendra Vajpeyi and Glen Segell discuss and critique the current models and literature on civil-military relations. The innovative framework and careful choice of case studies, presented in a jargon-free, accessible style, makes this book attractive to scholars and students of civil military relations and development studies, as well as policymakers.
On 21 June 1941 Churchill relieved General Archibald Wavell from command in the Middle East. This action followed a series of set-backs in the theatre during which Churchill had direct dealings with Wavell. Given the significant internal conflict within the British High Command during World War I, this action by Churchill was seen as symptomatic of yet another poor political/military relationship. A close examination of the British national command structure shows that while there was certainly inter-personal conflict between Churchill and his Chiefs of Staff, they still maintained an effective relationship. Churchill's strong personality, and penchant for becoming involved in military matters, may have reduced the potential effectiveness of this relationship but it still remained effective none-the-less. The relationship between Wavell and the British High Command was similarly effective, despite personal conflict between him and Churchill. The High Command provided Wavell with broad strategic guidance, the resources to implement it, and allowed him a relatively free hand to do so. It was only when he strayed from strategic guidance that he came into conflict with the High Command. Following a brilliant opening series of campaigns in North and East Africa, Wavell lost his broad strategic vision. He allowed part of his limited forces to be dissipated to Greece at a critical time, while under-estimating the implications of German intervention in North Africa. He then failed to appreciate the strategic implications of Axis threats to both Iraq and to Syria, and finally he allowed himself to be pressured into a premature counter offensive in the Western Desert. It is argued that it was these errors which caused Wavell's dismissal, and not a failing in the political/military interface.
The military has historically played a pivotal role in Latin American politics and society. This collection of essays, the product of a long-term research program organized by a group of prominent Latin American scholars, compares current linkages among the armed forces and local social and political structures and institutions. Within each nation studied, the contributing authors found increasing military autonomy vis-a-vis the state. They show that this institutional autonomy has allowed the military to develop as independent political entities within the various countries, a process that seems to be common to all Latin American societies.