Models of the Visual System

Author: George K. Hung

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475758658

Category: Science

Page: 781

View: 442

Some of the best vision scientists in the world in their respective fields have contributed to chapters in this book. They have expertise in a wide variety of fields, including bioengineering, basic and clinical visual science, medicine, neurophysiology, optometry, and psychology. Their combined efforts have resulted in a high quality book that covers modeling and quantitative analysis of optical, neurosensory, oculomotor, perceptual and clinical systems. It includes only those techniques and models that have such fundamentally strong physiological, control system, and perceptual bases that they will serve as foundations for models and analysis techniques in the future. The book is aimed first towards seniors and beginning graduate students in biomedical engineering, neurophysiology, optometry, and psychology, who will gain a broad understanding of quantitative analysis of the visual system. In addition, it has sufficient depth in each area to be useful as an updated reference and tutorial for graduate and post-doctoral students, as well as general vision scientists.
Models of the Visual Cortex

Author: David Rose

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: UOM:39015009500367

Category: Biological models

Page: 616

View: 659

A comprehensive and stimulating study which presents the views of 71 leading theorists on the underlying mechanisms and functions of the primary visual cortex.

Author: Jeanny H‚rault

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814273695

Category: Computers

Page: 308

View: 269

At the fascinating frontiers of neurobiology, mathematics and psychophysics, this book addresses the problem of human and computer vision on the basis of cognitive modeling. After recalling the physics of light and its transformation through media and optics, Hrault presents the principles of the primate's visual system in terms of anatomy and functionality. Then, the neuronal circuitry of the retina is analyzed in terms of spatio?temporal filtering. This basic model is extended to the concept of neuromorphic circuits for motion processing and to the processing of color in the retina. For more in-depth studies, the adaptive non-linear properties of the photoreceptors and of ganglion cells are addressed, exhibiting all the power of the retinal pre-processing of images as a system of information cleaning suitable for further cortical processing. As a target of retinal information, the primary visual area is presented as a bank of filters able to extract valuable descriptors of images, suitable for categorization and recognition and also for local information extraction such as saliency and perspective. All along the book, many comparisons between the models and human perception are discussed as well as detailed applications to computer vision.
Large-scale Functional Models of Visual Cortex for Remote Sensing



ISBN: OCLC:727255260



View: 195

Neuroscience has revealed many properties of neurons and of the functional organization of visual cortex that are believed to be essential to human vision, but are missing in standard artificial neural networks. Equally important may be the sheer scale of visual cortex requiring (almost equal to)1 petaflop of computation. In a year, the retina delivers (almost equal to)1 petapixel to the brain, leading to massively large opportunities for learning at many levels of the cortical system. We describe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop large-scale functional models of visual cortex on LANL's Roadrunner petaflop supercomputer. An initial run of a simple region VI code achieved 1.144 petaflops during trials at the IBM facility in Poughkeepsie, NY (June 2008). Here, we present criteria for assessing when a set of learned local representations is 'complete' along with general criteria for assessing computer vision models based on their projected scaling behavior. Finally, we extend one class of biologically-inspired learning models to problems of remote sensing imagery.
Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications

Author: De-Shuang Huang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540742050

Category: Computers

Page: 1377

View: 511

This volume, in conjunction with the two volumes CICS 0002 and LNCS 4681, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Computing held in Qingdao, China, in August 2007. The 139 full papers published here were carefully reviewed and selected from among 2,875 submissions. These papers offer important findings and insights into the field of intelligent computing.
Advances in Intelligent Computing

Author: De-Shuang Huang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540319023

Category: Computers

Page: 1101

View: 783

The International Conference on Intelligent Computing (ICIC) was set up as an annual forum dedicated to emerging and challenging topics in the various aspects of advances in computational intelligence fields, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, bioinformatics, and computational biology, etc. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers from academia and industry as well as practitioners to share ideas, problems and solutions related to the multifaceted aspects of intelligent computing. This book constitutes the proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Computing (ICIC 2005), held in Hefei, Anhui, China, during August 23–26, 2005. ICIC 2005 received over 2000 submissions from authors in 39 countries and regions. Based on rigorous peer reviews, the Program Committee selected 563 high-quality papers for presentation at ICIC 2005; of these, 215 papers were published in this book organized into 9 categories, and the other 348 papers were published in five international journals. The organizers of ICIC 2005 made great efforts to ensure the success of this conference. We here thank the members of the ICIC 2005 Advisory Committee for their guidance and advice, the members of the Program Committee and the referees for reviewing the papers, and the members of the Publication Committee for checking and compiling the papers. We would also like to thank the publisher, Springer, for their support in publishing the proceedings in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science series. Particularly, we would like to thank all the authors for contributing their papers.
Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research

Author: P. Michael Conn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781597452854

Category: Medical

Page: 778

View: 924

The collection of systems represented in this volume is a unique effort to reflect the diversity and utility of models used in biomedicine. That utility is based on the consideration that observations made in particular organisms will provide insight into the workings of other, more complex systems. This volume is therefore a comprehensive and extensive collection of these important medical parallels.
The Amphibian Visual System

Author: Katherine V. Fite

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9781483270135

Category: Nature

Page: 388

View: 193

The Amphibian Visual System: A Multidisciplinary Approach is a compendium of articles across a broad range of disciplines within experimental biology focusing on the study of the amphibian visual system. The book presents a survey of the evolutionary history and major taxonomic and ecological adaptations of amphibians; anatomic, physiological, developmental, and behavioral data relating to the amphibian visual system; description of important standards for laboratory amphibians; and the crucial problem of species identification in neurobiological research. Zoologists, experimental biologists, neurologists, and anatomists will find the text very interesting.
Models of Learning in the Visual System: Dependence on Retinal Eccentricity



ISBN: OCLC:695425240



View: 967

In the primary visual cortex of primates relatively more space is devoted to the representation of the central visual field in comparison to the representation of the peripheral visual field. Experimentally testable theories about the factors and mechanisms which may have determined this inhomogeneous mapping may provide valuable insights into general processing principles in the visual system. Therefore, I investigated to which visual situations this inhomogeneous representation of the visual field is well adapted, and which mechanisms could support its refinement and stabilization during individual development. Furthermore, I studied possible functional consequences of the inhomogeneous representation for visual processing at central and peripheral locations of the visual field. Vision plays an important role during navigation. Thus, visual processing should be well adapted to self-motion. Therefore, I assumed that spatially inhomogeneous retinal velocity distributions, caused by static objects during self-motion along the direction of gaze, are transformed on average into spatially homogeneous cortical velocity distributions. This would have the advantage that the cortical mechanisms, concerned with the processing of self-motion, can be identical in their spatial and temporal properties across the representation of the whole visual field. This is the case if the arrangement of objects relative to the observer corresponds to an ellipsoid with the observer in its center. I used the resulting flow field to train a network model of pulse coding neurons with a Hebbian learning rule. The distribution of the learned receptive fields is in agreement with the inhomogeneous cortical representation of the visual field. These results suggest that self motion may have played an important role in the evolution of the visual system and that the inhomogeneous cortical representation of the visual field can be refined and stabilized by Hebbian learning mechanisms during ontogenes.
Frog Neurobiology

Author: R. Llinas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642663161

Category: Science

Page: 1048

View: 365

In review, the amount of information available on the morphological and func tional properties of the frog nervous system is very extensive indeed and in certain areas is the only available source of information in vertebrates. Further more, much of the now classical knowledge in neurobiology was originally ob tained and elaborated in depth in this vertebrate. To cite only a few examples, studies of nerve conduction, neuromuscular transmission, neuronal integration, sense organs, development, and locomotion have been developed with great detail in the frog and in conjunction provide the most complete holistic descrip tion of any nervous system. Added to the above considerations, the ease with which these animals may be maintained (both as adults and during development) and the advantage of their lower cost as compared with other vertebrate forms make the frog one of the most important laboratory animals in neurobiology. With these thoughts in mind, we decided to compile this volume. Our goal in doing so was to assemble as much as possible of the information available on frog neurobiology and to have the different topics covered by authorities in each of the fields represented. To keep the handbook restricted to one volume, we found it necessary to omit the large field of amphibian muscle neurobiology, which has already been summarized in various other publications.