Morality Without Foundations

Author: Mark Timmons

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195176544

Category: Philosophy

Page: 269

View: 578

Morality Without Foundations investigates fundamental metaethical questions about the meaning, truth, and justification of moral thought and discourse. Mark Timmons maintains that all versions of descriptivism in ethics, particularly certain accounts of moral realism, fail. He argues instead that a correct metaethical theory should embrace some version of non-descriptivism. Timmons defends what he calls "assertoric non-descriptivism" which, unlike traditional non-descriptivist views, holds that moral sentences are typically used to make genuine assertions. In defending this view, he exploits contextual semantics, providing him with the semantic flexibility to develop an irrealist account of moral discourse.Timmons goes on to support a contextualist moral epistemology, completing his overall version of contextualism in ethics. Like his foundationalist rivals, Timmons recognizes that there are moral beliefs that are epistemically basic in providing a basis for the justification of non-basic moral beliefs. Yet, he agrees with the coherentist in maintaining that there are no intrinsically justified beliefs that can serve as a single foundation for a system of moral knowledge. Timmons ultimately finds that regresses of justification of moral belief end with contextually basic beliefs--moral beliefs which, in the relevant context, are responsibly held, but in other contexts might not be suitable as regress stoppers.Timmons' novel defense of morality without foundations offers provocative reading for philosophers working in the areas of ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Yet, written with the student in mind, his lucid presentation of difficult ideas makes this book accessible to students and newcomers to the field of metaethics.
Moral Certainty and the Foundations of Morality

Author: Neil O'Hara

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319754444

Category: Philosophy

Page: 203

View: 782

What lies at the foundation of our moral beliefs? If we dig down far enough do we find that our moral values have no ground at all to stand on, and so are apt to collapse upon serious philosophical investigation? This book seeks to answer these and related questions by positing an indubitable foundation for our moral beliefs – they arise from the phenomenon of ‘primary recognition’, and are fundamentally shaped by ‘basic moral certainties’. Drawing on philosophers such as Ludwig Wittgenstein and Knud Ejler Løgstrup, this book draws together insights from both Analytic and Continental philosophy to provide a convincing new picture of our moral foundations. And it does so in a way that eschews moral conservativism and opens the way for a rich understanding of the variety and particularity of our human moral systems, while also keeping a significant place for those moral beliefs that occur universally, across cultures.
Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality

Author: Nicholas Southwood

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191009990

Category: Philosophy

Page: 222

View: 991

Contractualism has a venerable history and considerable appeal. Yet as an account of the foundations or ultimate grounds of morality it has been thought by many philosophers to be subject to fatal objections. In this book Nicholas Southwood argues otherwise. Beginning by detailing and diagnosing the shortcomings of the existing "Hobbesian" and "Kantian" models of contractualism, he then proposes a novel "deliberative" model, based on an interpersonal, deliberative conception of practical reason. He argues that the deliberative model of contractualism represents an attractive alternative to its more familiar rivals and that it has the resources to offer a more compelling account of morality's foundations, one that does justice to the twin demands of moral accuracy and explanatory adequacy.
Foundation for a Natural Morality

Author: Edmund Wall

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781498503013

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 582

This book examines the foundations of morality and criticizes various philosophical justifications that have been offered for basic moral principles or values throughout the years. This book introduces and defends what is designed to be a sure justification for a natural morality and its basic moral principles.
Speech and Morality

Author: Terence Cuneo

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191053689

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 179

Terence Cuneo develops a novel line of argument for moral realism. The argument he defends hinges on the normative theory of speech, according to which speech acts are generated by an agent's altering her normative position with regard to her audience, gaining rights, responsibilities, and obligations of certain kinds. Some of these rights, responsibilities, and obligations, Cuneo suggests, are moral. And these moral features are best understood along realist lines, in part because they explain how it is that we can speak. If this is right, a necessary condition of being able to speak is that there are moral rights, responsibilities, and obligations of a broadly realist sort.
Morality and Self-Interest

Author: Paul Bloomfield

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195305845

Category: Philosophy

Page: 323

View: 599

The relationship between morality and self-interest is a perennial one in philosophy. For Plato, Hobbes, Kant, Aristotle, Hume, Machiavelli, and Nietzsche, it lay at the heart of moral theory. This text introduces the topic and looks at its place in philosophical history.
Themes from G. E. Moore

Author: Susana Nuccetelli

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199281725

Category: Philosophy

Page: 348

View: 880

These sixteen original essays, whose authors include some of the world's leading philosophers, examine themes from the work of the Cambridge philosopher G. E. Moore (1873-1958), and demonstrate his considerable continuing influence on philosophical debate. Part I bears on epistemological topics, such as scepticism about the external world, the significance of common sense, and theories of perception. Part II is devoted to themes in ethics, such as Moore's open question argument, his non-naturalism, utilitarianism, and his notion of organic unities.
New Waves in Metaethics

Author: Michael S. Brady

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780230294899

Category: Philosophy

Page: 300

View: 320

Metaethics occupies a central place in analytical philosophy, and the last forty years has seen an upsurge of interest in questions about the nature and practice of morality. This collection presents original and ground-breaking research on metaethical issues from some of the very best of a new generation of philosophers working in this field.
Common Values

Author: Sissela Bok

Publisher: University of Missouri Press

ISBN: 9780826210388

Category: Philosophy

Page: 130

View: 992

In Common Values, Sissela Bok asks what moral values, if any, might be capable of being shared across national, ethnic, religious, and other boundaries, under what circumstances, and with what qualifications. Bok argues that certain basic values can be shared cross-culturally without infringing on the richness of diversity and can provide a starting point for dialogue, negotiation, and cooperation. She takes a stand against the claim that respect for cultural diversity and respect for common values are mutually exclusive or somehow diminish one another. Examining different moral and religious traditions, she singles out certain fundamental values as having had to be worked out in even the most primitive human communities for purposes of group thriving and survival. Drawing on a great deal of historical material, Bok also includes in her examination consideration of the 1993 United Nations World Conference on Human Rights; the World Parliament of Religions; the publication of Veritatis Splendor, Pope John Paul II's proclamation on morality; and the International Commission of Global Governance. Combining moral theory with practical ethics, demonstrating how moral values apply to all facets of life, Bok's eloquent defense of shared morality addresses a crucial topic of our time.
Perspectives on Morality and Human Well-Being

Author: Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi

Publisher: Kube Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 9780860376477

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 212

This book explores in detail the proposition that (private) morality, especially religious morality, is vital for achieving economic well-being and human happiness; and that this linkage would be even stronger in an Islamic economy. The book highlights the need for an active interaction between religion, morality and economics in general and in an (idealized) Islamic economy in particular. Professor Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi has an MA from Yale University and a PhD from Princeton University. He did his post-doctoral work at Harvard University.
Tradition, Interpretation, and Science

Author: John S. Nelson

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9781438414393

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 207

This book reassesses the academic field of political theory and brings into sharp relief its problems and opportunities. Here for the first time, diverse theorists coordinate their arguments through a common focus. This focus is the writing of John G. Gunnell. Gunnell attacks a set of myths said to plague almost every recent theory about politics: the myth of the given, the myth of science, myths of theory, the myth of tradition, and the myth of the political. He argues that these all alienate political theory from substantive inquiry and actual practice. Contributors include Richard E. Flathman, Russell L. Hanson, George Kateb, Paul F. Kress, J. Donald Moon, John S. Nelson, J.G.A. Pocock, Herbert G. Reid, Ira L. Strauber, Nathan Tarcov, and Sheldon S. Wolin. They respond on behalf of projects in the new history of political theory, epic theory, phenomenology, traditional theory, and political deconstruction. These discussions also address the theories of Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jürgen Habermas, Karl Marx, Leo Strauss, Alain Touraine, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. At the conclusion of the volume, Gunnell reconsiders his arguments in light of the respondent’s remarks. His challenges thus provide a series of confrontations – both exciting and provocative – among major theorists. The result is a lively debate about what political theory is, how it relates to political history and practice, and how it involves epistemology. The authors probe a broad range of questions about practices of politics and traditions of discourse, and they identify priorities for the future of the field.