This thesis makes significant advances to the understanding of bottlebrush polymers. While bottlebrushes have received much attention due to the recent discovery of their unprecedented properties, including supersoftness, ultra-low viscosity, and hyperelasticity, this thesis is the first fundamental investigation at the molecular level that comprises structure and dynamics. Neutron scattering experiments, detailed within, reveal spherical or cylindrical shapes, instead of a random coil conformation. Another highlight is the analysis of the fast dynamics at the sub nm-length scale. The combination of three neutron spectrometers and the development of a new analysis technique enabled the calculation of the mean-square displacement over seven orders of magnitude in time scale. This unprecedented result can be applied to a broad class of samples, including polymers and other materials. The thesis is accessible to scientists from other fields, provides the reader with easily understandable guidelines for applying this analysis to other materials, and has the potential to make a significant impact on the analysis of neutron scattering data.
Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites provides an important introduction to the key principles, methods, and research directions of this emerging thermal management material category. This book introduces thermal conduction, measurement methods, thermal conduction mechanisms, and related theories. It also reviews classification and processing techniques which impact thermal conductivity performance. Thermally conductive composites discussed include intrinsically thermally conductive polymers, thermally conductive fillers, and thermally conductive polymer composites. Furthermore, the interfacial thermal resistance is thoroughly explained including basic concepts, theoretical research, and characterization. Finally, the practical applications of thermally conductive polymer composites are illustrated such as thermally conductive plastics, thermally conductive rubbers, and thermally conductive adhesives. Covers measurement methods, thermal conductivity mechanisms and models Introduces thermally conductive polymers, intrinsically thermal conductors, fillers and composites, as well as interfaces Reviews advances in classification and processing techniques
This Handbook covers the fundamentals of carbon nanotubes (CNT), their composites with different polymeric materials (both natural and synthetic) and their potential advanced applications. Three different parts dedicated to each of these aspects are provided, with chapters written by worldwide experts in the field. It provides in-depth information about this material serving as a reference book for a broad range of scientists, industrial practitioners, graduate and undergraduate students, and other professionals in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering. Part 1 comprises 22 chapters covering early stages of the development of CNT, synthesis techniques, growth mechanism, the physics and chemistry of CNT, various innovative characterization techniques, the need of functionalization and different types of functionalization methods as well as the different properties of CNT. A full chapter is devoted to theory and simulation aspects. Moreover, it pursues a significant amount of work on life cycle analysis of CNT and toxicity aspects. Part 2 covers CNT-based polymer nanocomposites in approximately 23 chapters. It starts with a short introduction about polymer nanocomposites with special emphasis on CNT-based polymer nanocomposites, different manufacturing techniques as well as critical issues concerning CNT-based polymer nanocomposites. The text deeply reviews various classes of polymers like thermoset, elastomer, latex, amorphous thermoplastic, crystalline thermoplastic and polymer fibers used to prepare CNT based polymer composites. It provides detailed awareness about the characterization of polymer composites. The morphological, rheological, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal, electrical, electromagnetic shielding properties are discussed in detail. A chapter dedicated to the simulation and multiscale modelling of polymer nanocomposites is an additional attraction of this part of the Handbook. Part 3 covers various potential applications of CNT in approximately 27 chapters. It focuses on individual applications of CNT including mechanical applications, energy conversion and storage applications, fuel cells and water splitting, solar cells and photovoltaics, sensing applications, nanofluidics, nanoelectronics and microelectronic devices, nano-optics, nanophotonics and nano-optoelectronics, non-linear optical applications, piezo electric applications, agriculture applications, biomedical applications, thermal materials, environmental remediation applications, anti-microbial and antibacterial properties and other miscellaneous applications and multi-functional applications of CNT based polymer nanocomposites. One chapter is fully focussed on carbon nanotube research developments: published papers and patents. Risks associated with carbon nanotubes and competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes with other carbon allotropes are also addressed in this Handbook.
The surface response of a polymer substrate to external stimuli such as initial wetting is controlled by the outermost molecular layer. Thus, changes on the nanoscale may be engaged to control macroscale wetting behavior. Our work has predominantly focused on surface modification of conventional polyurethane coatings (HMDI-BD-PTMO). Studies on network constrained phase separation and facile polydimethylsiloxane surface functionalization led to the discovery of a simpler one-step and more general approach to functional polymer surfaces that we have designated as "Bottle-Brush Nanoglass" (BB-NG) after the two principle components: (a) a polyoxetane soft block "spine" with side chain "A" bristles and triethoxysilyl chain ends and (b) an alkoxysilane that together with BB chain ends comprise precursors to a "nanoglass" NG phase. This paper focuses on the extent of modification for a conventional aliphatic polyurethane using a range of fluoropolyoxetane (poly(trifluoroethoxymethyl-methyl oxetane) diol) or 3F diol based modifier concentrations. Upon generating a blend of the polyurethane with the modifier, the BB-NG which is a minor constituent of the blend, phase separates to provide the topmost layer of the coating. Initial results demonstrate that the modified polymer coatings exhibit an expected increase in contact angles with water. Wetting behavior was characterized using the sessile drop technique as well as Dynamic Contact Analysis (DCA, Wilhelmy Plate). Surface composition as well as near surface topology and morphology are characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) respectively. Contrast in phase images reflect the surface modulus and viscoelasticity, from which physical form or compositional differences may be deduced. These characteristics have also been explored in our study by hardness tests via nanoindentation.
Mechanical Properties of Single Molecules and Polymer Aggregates Rüdiger Berger, Kurt Binder, Gregor Diezemann, Jürgen Gauß, Mark Helm, Katharina Landfester, Wolfgang Paul (Halle), Peter Virnau. Optical Properties of Individual Molecular Aggregates and Nano Particles Thomas Basché, Hans-Jürgen Butt, Gregor Diezemann, Jürgen Gauß, Klaus Müllen, Harald Paulsen, Carsten Sönnichsen, Rudolf Zentel. Structure Formation of Polymeric Building Blocks I: Self-assembly of Copolymers Kurt Binder, Holger Frey, Andreas Kilbinger (Univ. Fribourg), Ute Kolb, Michael Maskos (IMM Mainz), Wolfgang Paul (Univ. Halle), Hans Wolfgang Spiess. Structure Formation of Polymeric Building Blocks II: Complex Polymer Architectures Kurt Binder, Hans Jürgen Butt, Angelika Kühnle, Klaus Müllen, Wolfgang Paul (Univ. Halle), Erwin Schmidt, Manfred Schmidt, Hans Wolfgang Spiess, Thomas Vilgis. Structure Formation of Polymeric Building Blocks III: Polymer Complexes in Biological Applications Kurt Kremer, Heiko Luhmann, Christine Peter, Friederike Schmid, Erwin Schmidt, Manfred Schmidt, Eva Sinner (Univ. of Natural Resources, Vienna), Tanja Weil (Univ. Ulm).
This highly informative and carefully presented book comprises select proceedings of Foundation for Molecular Modelling and Simulation (FOMMS 2018). The contents are written by invited speakers centered on the theme Innovation for Complex Systems. It showcases new developments and applications of computational quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, molecular simulation and theory, and continuum and engineering process simulation. This volume will serve as a useful reference to researchers, academicians and practitioners alike.
Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology, Second Edition allows researchers to navigate a very diverse, interdisciplinary and rapidly-changing field with up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of every aspect of modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. Presents new chapters on the latest developments in the field Covers topics not discussed to this degree of detail in other works, such as biological devices and applications of nanotechnology Compiled and written by top international authorities in the field
Elastomers are found in many applications ranging from technology to daily life applications for example in tires, drive systems, sealings and print rollers. Dynamical operation conditions put extremely high demands on the performance and stability of these materials and their elastic and flow properties can be easily adjusted by simple manipulations on their elastic and viscous properties. However, the required service life suffers often from material damage as a result of wear processes such as abrasion and wear fatigue, mostly caused by crack formation and propagation. This book covers interdisciplinary research between physics, physical chemistry, material sciences and engineering of elastomers within the range from nanometres to millimetres and connects these aspects with the constitutive material properties. The different chapters describe reliable lifetime and durability predictions based on new fracture mechanical testing concepts and advanced material-theoretical methods which are finally implemented in the finite element method for structural simulations. The use of this approach allows a realistic description of complex geometrical and loading conditions which includes the peculiarities of the mechanical behaviour of elastomeric materials in detail. Furthermore, this approach demonstrates how multi-scale research concepts provide an ambitious interdisciplinary challenge at the interface between engineering and natural sciences. This book covers the interests of academic researchers, graduate students and professionals working in polymer science, rubber and tire technology and in materials science at the interface of academic and industrial research.
Recent Developments in Polymer Macro, Micro and Nano Blends: Preparation and Characterisation discusses the various types of techniques that are currently used for the characterization of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. It summarizes recent technical research accomplishments, emphasizing a broad range of characterization methods. In addition, the book discusses preparation methods and applications for various types of polymer-based macro, micro, and nano blends. Chapters include thermoplastic-based polymer & nano blends, applications of rubber based and thermoplastic blends, micro/nanostructures polymer blends containing block copolymers, advances in polymer-inorganic hybrids as membrane materials, synthesis of polymer/inorganic hybrids through heterophase polymerizations, nanoporous polymer foams from nanostructured polymer blends, and natural polymeric biodegradable nano blends for protein delivery. Describes the techniques pertaining to a kind (or small number) of blends, showing specific examples of their applications Covers micro, macro, and nano polymer blends Contains contributions from leading experts in the field
This edited volume brings together the state of the art in polymer nanocomposite theory and modeling, creating a roadmap for scientists and engineers seeking to design new advanced materials. The book opens with a review of molecular and mesoscale models predicting equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoscale structure of hybrid materials as a function of composition and, especially, filler types. Subsequent chapters cover the methods and analyses used for describing the dynamics of nanocomposites and their mechanical and physical properties. Dedicated chapters present best practices for predicting materials properties of practical interest, including thermal and electrical conductivity, optical properties, barrier properties, and flammability. Each chapter is written by leading academic and industrial scientists working in each respective sub-field. The overview of modeling methodology combined with detailed examples of property predictions for specific systems will make this book useful for academic and industrial practitioners alike.
Sections 1-2. Keyword Index.--Section 3. Personal author index.--Section 4. Corporate author index.-- Section 5. Contract/grant number index, NTIS order/report number index 1-E.--Section 6. NTIS order/report number index F-Z.