Opportunities for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Rice and Other Non-Legumes

Author: J.K. Ladha

Publisher: Int. Rice Res. Inst.

ISBN: 9780792345145

Category: Nature

Page: 216

View: 175

New frontiers of science offer exciting opportunities to stretch rice research horizons. Recent advances in understanding symbiotic Rhizobium-legume interactions at the molecular level, the discovery of endophytic interactions of nitrogen-fixing organisms with non-legumes and the ability to introduce new genes into rice through transformation have created an excellent opportunity to investigate the possibilities for incorporating N2 fixation capability in rice. During a think-tank workshop organized by IRRI in 1992, the participants reaffirmed that such opportunities do exist for cereals and recommended that rice be used as a model system. Subsequently, IRRI developed a New Frontier Project to coordinate the worldwide collaborative efforts among research centers committed to reducing dependency of rice on mineral N resources. An international Rice Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) working group was established to review, share research results/materials, and to catalyze research. This volume contains the deliberations made at the second working group meeting, held 13-15 October, 1996 at the National Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE) in Faisalabad, Pakistan. The papers presented in the meeting deal with the recent findings on different approaches related to the establishment of endophytic association, development of N2-fixing nodules similar to legumes and transfer of nif genes to rice.
Nitrogen Fixation with Non-Legumes

Author: K.A. Malik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401152327

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 164

Diazotrophic bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to plant-useable form and this input of nitrogen through biological fixation is of great agronomic importance. The contributions presented in this volume relate to free-living nitrogen fixers and the diazotrophs associated with plants. Symbiotic association of Frankia with non-legumes and cyanobacterial associations are also discussed. Research topics covered in this volume include the biochemistry and genetics of diazotrophs, recent developments in improvement of plant-microbe interactions and their molecular basis, the use of molecular probes in taxonomy and ecology of diazotrophs and reports on field applications, agronomic importance and improvement in methodologies for assessing their contribution to plants. This book provides valuable information not only for researchers working in the field of biological nitrogen fixation but also for biochemistry, molecular biologists, microbiologists and agronomists.
The Chemistry and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation

Author: J. Postgate

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468418187

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 620

Understanding of biological nitrogen fixation has advanced with impressive rapidity during the last decade. As befits a developing area of Science, these advances have uncovered information and raised questions which will have, and indeed have had, repercussions in numerous other branches of science and its applications. This 'information explosion', to use one of to-day's cant idioms, was initiated by the discovery, by a group of scientists working in the Central Research laboratories of Dupont de Nemours, U. S. A. , of a reproducibly active, cell-free enzyme preparation from a nitrogen fixing bacterium. Full credit is due to them. But subsequent developments, albeit sometimes quite as impressive, have too often been marked by that familiar disorder of a developing field of research-the scramble to publish. It is a scramble which, at its best, may represent a laudable desire to inform colleagues of the latest developments; yet which too easily develops into an undignified rush for priority, wherewith to impress one's Board of Directors or Grant-giving Institution. This, in miniature, is the tragedy of scientific research to-day: desire for credit causes research to be published in little bulletins, notes and preliminary communications, so that only those intimately involved in the field really know what is happening (and even they may well not see the forest for the trees). Those outside the field, or working in peripheral areas, may glean something of what is going on from reviews and fragments presented at meetings, but the broad pattern of development is often elusive.
Advances in Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen Fixation

Author: Takuji Ohyama

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789535112167

Category: Science

Page: 286

View: 963

Biological nitrogen fixation has essential role in N cycle in global ecosystem. Several types of nitrogen fixing bacteria are recognized: the free-living bacteria in soil or water; symbiotic bacteria making root nodules in legumes or non-legumes; associative nitrogen fixing bacteria that resides outside the plant roots and provides fixed nitrogen to the plants; endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria living in the roots, stems and leaves of plants. In this book there are 11 chapters related to biological nitrogen fixation, regulation of legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and agriculture and ecology of biological nitrogen fixation, including new models for autoregulation of nodulation in legumes, endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane or forest trees, etc. Hopefully, this book will contribute to biological, ecological, and agricultural sciences.


Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3838390393


Page: 124

View: 495

Nitrogen is most often the limiting nutrient for crop production, since only a fraction of atmospheric nitrogen is made available to the plants through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Extending the BNF ability to non-legumes would be a useful technology for increased crop yields among resource-poor farmers. The idea that genetic manipulation techniques might be used to engineer crop plants to fix nitrogen is, of course, not new. However, the more we understand about the biochemistry and physiology of BNF, the less likely it seems that this goal will be achieved by 'simply' transferring the genes for nitrogen fixation to suitable crop species. Induction of nodulation has therefore been the main target of researchers over the past few years.
Methods for Evaluating Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Author: F. J. Bergersen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: UOM:39015001906117

Category: Nitrogen

Page: 702

View: 554

The cultivation of diazotrophic microorganisms. Measurement of nitrogen fixation by direct means. Measurement of nitrogen fixation by indirect means. Methods for legumes in glasshouses and controlled environment cabinets. Non-legumes nodule systems. Methods for studying nitrogenase. Methods for studying enzymes involved in metabolism related to nitrogenase. Preparation and experimental use of leghaemoglobin. Methods for identifying strains of diazotrophs. Genetic studies with diazotrophs. Experiments with crop and pasture legumes: principles and practice. Production and quality control of legume inoculants. Forage grasses and grain crops. Nitrogen fixation in natural plant communities and soils. Sytems involving blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: Sustainable Growth of Non-legumes

Author: Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811949050

Category: Technology & Engineering


View: 815

This book covers aspects of biological nitrogen fixation along with the unique signaling and interaction between the diazotrophic bacteria and plants, especially the non-legumes. Nitrogen is the most important growth-limiting nutrient in the ecosystems and biological nitrogen fixation involving microbial symbionts, mainly rhizobia and legumes holds enormous interest across the globe. However, free-living rhizobacteria of non-legumes especially cereals, also establish themselves within the root system, fixing nitrogen and contributing to plant productivity, soil fertility, and agricultural sustainability. These non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers additionally exhibit various plant growth-promoting traits elevating productivity, fortifying nutrient content, and managing water stress in plants. The recent perspectives highlighting the mechanisms and background of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation provide answers to unravel the potential of nitrogenase and various spectra of habitats of rhizobia and other diazotrophic bacteria. Further, the application of genetic engineering and the development of nitrogen-fixing cereals can provide a possible solution to the problem of food shortage. The book includes various scientific inputs providing comprehensive knowledge about the emergence of agricultural sustainability through nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The book illustrates the systematic mechanisms involved in biological nitrogen fixation through various illustrations, schematic drawings, and flow charts aiding in better understanding. The chapters elaborate on the physiology and metabolism of plant-bacteria interaction in different crops under diverse environmental conditions. Thus, the volume will provide a holistic scenario helping in advancing the novel plant-microbe interactions, cell-signaling, and plant-molecular interactions. The book will assist the agronomists, microbiologists, ecologists, plant pathologists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policymakers, conservationists, and NGOs to develop biofertilizers and bioinoculants using various genera of microbes and contribute to the targets of sustainable goals in an eco-friendly manner.