The decade since the publication of the third edition of this volume has been an era of great progress in biology in general and the plant sciences in particular. This is especially true with the advancements brought on by the sequencing of whole genomes of model organisms and the development of "omics" techniques. This fourth edition of Plant Roots: The Hidden Half reflects these developments that have transformed not only the field of biology, but also the many facets of root science. Highlights of this new edition include: The basics of root research and their evolution and role in the global context of soil development and atmosphere composition New understandings about roots gained in the post-genomic era, for example, how the development of roots became possible, and the genetic basis required for this to occur The mechanisms that determine root structure, with chapters on cellular patterning, lateral root and vascular development, the molecular basis of adventitious roots, and other topics Plant hormone action and signaling pathways that control root development, including new chapters on strigolactones and brassinosteroids Soil resource acquisition from agricultural and ecological perspectives Root response to stress, with chapters that address the impact of the genomic revolution on this topic Root-rhizosphere interactions, from beneficial microorganisms to detrimental nematodes Modern research techniques for the field and the lab Each chapter not only presents a clear summation of the topic under discussion, but also includes a vision of what is to be expected in the years to come. The wide coverage of themes in this volume continues the tradition that makes this work recognized as a fundamental source of information for root scientists at all levels.
The effective management of plants is fundamental to all agricultural enterprise, making plant science a key discipline for all growers. This book provides an integrated explanation of all aspects of plant structure and function for students of agriculture, horticulture and applied biology, with the aim of highlighting the practical relevance of plant science to agriculture. Each chapter is self-contained and self-explanatory, with specific chapters covering energy, water, minerals, structure, growth and development from sowing to harvest, environmental effects and controls, breeding, vegetative propagation, field production and yield, and the nutritional content of produce. Taken as a whole, Plants in Agriculture fulfills the need for a single text which promotes a comprehensive understanding of how plants operate in agriculture.
The understanding of biological complexity has been greatly facilitated by cross-disciplinary, holistic approaches that allow insights into the function and regulation of biological processes that cannot be captured by dissecting them into their individual components. In addition, the development of novel tools has dramatically increased our ability to interrogate information at the nucleic acid, protein and metabolite level. The integration and interpretation of disparate data sets, however, still remain a major challenge in systems biology. Roots provide an excellent model for studying physiological, developmental, and metabolic processes. The availability of genetic resources, along with sequenced genomes has allowed important discoveries in root biochemistry, development and function. Roots are transparent, allowing optical investigation of gene activity in individual cells and experimental manipulation. In addition, the predictable fate of cells emerging from the root meristem and the continuous development of roots throughout the life of the plant, which permits simultaneous observation of different developmental stages, provide ideal premises for the analysis of growth and differentiation. Moreover, a genetically fixed cellular organization allows for studying the utilization of positional information and other non-cell-autonomous phenomena, which are of utmost importance in plant development. Although their ontogeny is largely invariant under standardized experimental conditions, roots possess an extraordinary capacity to respond to a plethora of environmental signals, resulting in distinct phenotypic readouts. This high phenotypic plasticity allows research into acclimative and adaptive strategies, the understanding of which is crucial for germplasm enhancement and crop improvement. With the aim of providing a current snapshot on the function and development of roots at the systems level, this Research Topic collated original research articles, methods articles, reviews, mini reviews and perspective, opinion and hypotheses articles that communicate breakthroughs in root biology, as well as recent advances in research technologies and data analysis.
The third edition of a standard resource, this book offers a state-of-the-art, multi-disciplinary presentation of plant roots. It examines structure and development, assemblage of root systems, metabolism and growth, stressful environments, and interactions at the rhizosphere. Reflecting the explosion of advances and emerging technologies in the field, the book presents developments in the study of root origin, composition, formation, and behavior for the production of novel pharmaceutical and medicinal compounds, agrochemicals, dyes, flavors, and pesticides. It details breakthroughs in genetics, molecular biology, growth substance physiology, biotechnology, and biomechanics.
The decade since the publication of the third edition of this volume has been an era of great progress in biology in general and the plant sciences in particular. This is especially true with the advancements brought on by the sequencing of whole genomes of model organisms and the development of "omics" techniques. This fourth edition of Plant Root
Scientists, within a wide field, ranging from applied forestry and agriculture to physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences, are today more than ever involved in root and mycorrhizal research. New problem-oriented research fields have arisen such as the effects of fertilizers and pesticides, forest management and regeneration etc. At a time when root research is expanding into different areas, it is much more difficult for the root scientist to penetrate all the new information appearing in literature. The contributors of this volume are leading scientists from different fields of root research. The ISRR-symposium in Uppsala clearly demonstrated that there are new techniques in progress, in particular with regards to video recording of plant root systems and digital image processing. The main objectives of the symposium were (i) to provide a forum for communication between scientists from different disciplines working with root research problems, (ii) to contribute to an expansion of root studies into new areas, (iii) to use current estimates of root turnover for charting the upper and lower limit of below-ground production, and (iv) to spread knowledge of new findings and techniques of the importance of root research. This book is aimed at serving as a vehicle for improving the coherence of root research, for harmonizing methods and establishing overall objectives and gaps in the knowledge of rhizosphere dynamics.
The physiological background; Relationships between roots and shoots; The groeth and form of root systems; The absorption and transport of nutrients; The water relations of plant root systems; Relationships between plant roots and the rhizosphere flora; The soil environment; Mechanical impedance of root growth; Effects of anaerobic soil conditions; The soil/root interface; Traditional and modern methods of tillage; Reduced cultivation, soil conditions and crop growth.