Protected Agriculture

Author: Merle H. Jensen

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821329308

Category: Floriculture

Page: 174

View: 310

History; Covering materials; Greenhouses; Growing systems in greenhouses; Floriculture crops; Water supply, water quality and mineral nutrition; Drip irrigation; Disease and insect control; Propagation and cultivar selection; Economics of protecred agriculture; Marketing and distribution; Technology transfer between nations; Development constraints, research needs and the future of protected agriculture.
Protected agriculture, precision agriculture, and vertical farming: Brief reviews of issues in the literature focusing on the developing region in Asia

Author: Takeshima, Hiroyuki

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Political Science

Page: 49

View: 123

The frontiers of technologies have been constantly expanded in many industries around the world, including the agricultural sector. Among many “frontier technologies” in agriculture, are protected agriculture, precision agriculture, and vertical farming, all of which depart substantially from many conventional agricultural production methods. It is not yet clear how these technologies can become adoptable in developing countries, including, for example, South Asian countries like India. This paper briefly reviews the issues associated withthese three types of frontier technologies. We do so by systematically checkingthe academic articleslisted in Google Scholar, which primarily focus on these technologies in developing countries in Asia. Where appropriate, a few widely-cited overview articles for each technology were also reviewed. The findings generally reveal where performances of these technologiescan be raised potentially, based on the general trends in the literature. Where evidence is rich, some generalizable economic insights about these technologies are provided. For protected agriculture, recent research has focusedsignificantly on various features of protective structures (tunnel heights, covering materials, shading structures, frames and sizes) indicating that there are potentials for adaptive research on such structures to raise the productivity of protected agriculture. The research on protected agriculture also focuses on types of climate parameters controlled, andenergy structures, among others. For precision agriculture, recent research has focused on the spatial variability of production environments, development of efficient and suitable data management systems, efficiency of various types of image analyses and optical sensing, efficiency of sensors and related technologies, designs of precision agriculture equipment, optimal inputs and service uses, and their spatial allocations, potentials of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and nano-technologies. For vertical farming, research has often highlighted the variations in technologies based on out-door / indoor systems, ways to improve plants’ access to light (natural or artificial), growing medium and nutrient / water supply, advanced features like electricity generation and integration of production space into an office / residential space, and water treatment. For India, issues listed above may be some of the key areas that the country can draw on from other more advanced countries in Asia, or can focus in its adaptive research to improve the relevance and applicability of these technologies to the country.
Hydroponics and Protected Cultivation

Author: Lynette Morgan

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9781789244830

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 318

View: 798

A comprehensive, practical text which covers a diverse range of hydroponic and protected cropping techniques, systems, greenhouse types and environments. It also details the use of indoor plant factories, vertical systems, organic hydroponics and aquaponics. Worldwide hydroponic cropping operations can vary from large, corporate producers running many hectares of greenhouse systems particularly for crops such as tomato, cucumber, capsicum and lettuce, to smaller-scale growers growing fresh produce for local markets.
Sustainable Crop Protection under Protected Cultivation

Author: P. Parvatha Reddy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789812879523

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 434

View: 819

This book focuses on pests (insect and mite) and diseases (fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode) in protected horticulture (fruits, vegetables and ornamentals) using physical, cultural, chemical, biological, host resistance, and integrated methods. It opens with chapters describing the setting in which integrated pest and disease control operates, i.e., the greenhouse and its environment. Subsequent chapters present the basic strategies and tactics of different control methods including integrated control, with special reference to greenhouse crops. Further chapters include the different facets of biological pest and disease control – its scientific bases, its development in practice, its commercialization and quality control. The concluding chapters of the book highlight the present status of integrated pest and disease control for the most important greenhouse crops (fruits, vegetables and flower crops) worldwide. The book’s final chapter explores future challenges for researchers assigned to identify non-pesticide methods and integrate sustainable pest management technologies that can contribute to increased productivity, such as breeding for durable resistance, biological control and devising integrated methods that will have minimal adverse environmental and social impacts. Among productivity-enhancing technologies, protected cultivation has a tremendous potential to increase the yield of vegetables and flower cro ps by several fold. Pests and diseases are one of the major challenges to protected cultivation. Year-round warm temperatures and relatively high humidity together with abundant food make the protected environment of greenhouses highly attractive to pests and diseases. Nevertheless, very little attention has been paid to the manipulation of greenhouse environments expressly to avoid disease epidemics and insect infestations, which together can easily account for 30% of crop losses. This book will be of immense value to all members of the scientific community involved in teaching, research and extension activities on protected horticulture. It also offers a useful reference guide for policymakers and practicing farmers, and can be used as a textbook for postgraduate courses.
Remote Sensing Applications in Monitoring of Protected Areas

Author: Yeqiao Wang

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039363681

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 599

Remote sensing has been successfully applied in monitoring of protected areas around the world. With intensified impacts of climate and environmental change, protected areas become increasingly important to serve as indicators of and buffers against the impacts of the disturbances. Remote sensing plays an irreplaceable role in this frontline of challenges. The subjects and contents of the articles collected in this book reflect the state-of-the-art applications of remote sensing for capturing dynamics of environmental and ecological variations of the protected areas. The examples include revealing the level, growth rate, trend, and distribution pattern of the night-time light of global protected areas; quantifying the energy budget, water cycle, and carbon sink over the Three-River Headwaters Region in the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau; monitoring wetland change in a cross-boundary zone between Northeast China and the Russian Far East; and monitoring applications and change analyses in protected areas of boreal forests, dryland shrubs, coastal salt marshes, large lakes, and temperate semi-humid to semi-arid transitional agricultural regions, using a variety of sensor data with innovative approaches. Also included in this collection is a bibliometric analysis that suggests the intellectual structure in remote sensing of protected areas from the perspective of journal publications.
Precision Farming and Protected Cultivation

Author: Sanjeev Kumar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000423310

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 342

View: 918

The book consists of 32 chapters featuring the concepts and applications of precision farming and protected cultivation broadly covered with theoretical and practical approach. The first 8 chapters are exclusively designed to provide detailed information on concept, need, objectives, benefits, components, applications and limitations of precision farming; laser leveler and its working mechanism, components and functioning; mechanized sowing and types of mechanical seeders and their use; approaches for mapping of soils and plant attributes; site-specific weed and nutrient management; precision management of insect-pests and diseases; yield mapping in horticultural crops. An attempt has been made to cover the concept and application of protected cultivation in chapters from 9 to 30 characteristically highlighting the concept of greenhouse technology, its principles as well as historical and technological developments, agrivoltaic system, its concept and features, response of plant species under greenhouse conditions, criteria for the selection of crops and varieties for protected cultivation, basic considerations for site selection, orientation and designing of greenhouse structures, climate control mechanisms for cooling and heating in greenhouses, components, accessories and BIS codes for protected cultivation, types of Irrigation system for greenhouse production system, growing media for greenhouse cultivation, soil pasteurization namely solarization, steam sterilization, chemical sterilization and augmentation with biological agents, checking the suitability of soil and water for greenhouse crops, plug tray nursery raising, basics of fertigation in greenhouse production system, packages of practice for greenhouse cucumber, bell pepper, tomato and melons, potential of pruning as unconventional alternative for mass multiplication of greenhouse cucumber and tomato, types of soil-less cultures, GAP for protected cultivation and economic analysis of protected cultivation. Note: T&F does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Innate Immunity

Author: Jonathan Ewbank

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781588297464

Category: Medical

Page: 466

View: 749

Immunologists today are interested in all of the diverse cell-types involved in host defense and have a deeper appreciation of the importance of innate immune mechanisms as a first line of protection against pathogens. This volume thus discusses the isolation and functional characterization of cells involved in innate immunity in mouse and man, including mast cells and eosinophils. Other focuses include natural killer cells, methods in statistics, in vivo imaging, genome engineering, and mutagenesis and culture that are adapted to the study of innate immunity in these hosts. These are complemented with a series of chapters dealing with alternative models: plants, worms, mosquitoes, flies, and fish. Together, these approaches and models are being used to dissect the complex interplay between hosts and pathogens and contribute to developing strategies to help fight infection. With chapters written by experts on the cutting-edge of this technology, Innate Immunity is an essential reference for immunologists, histologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists.