This book explores the social, ethical and legal implications of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Providing a comparative analysis of several European countries, the authors evaluate the varied approaches to the application of ART throughout Europe. From a global perspective, countries take very different approaches to the regulation of ART. Countries apply restrictions to the access criteria for these treatments and/or direct restrictions to the practice of the techniques themselves. To understand these varied approaches to ART practice and regulation, it is necessary to understand the societal and political background from which they emerged. This book therefore consists of case studies from eight European countries which provide insights into the status and development of the regulation of ART in the last 40 years. The country cases from all over Europe and the three comparative chapters provide insights into the diversity of current ART regulation across the continent as well as into similarities, differences and trends in this regulatory area. This book will be of interest to practitioners of ART who are interested in understanding the differences in regulation of ART in Europe, as well as long-term trends in this respect. Given the ethical and legal implications the book explores, it will also be of interest to students or researchers in the fields of social sciences, humanities and law.
Regulating Creation is a collection of essays featuring contributions by Canadian and international scholars. It offers a variety of perspectives on the role of law in dealing with the legal, ethical, and policy issues surrounding changing reproductive technologies.
Third party conception is a growing phenomenon and provokes a burgeoning range of ethical, legal and social questions. What are the rights of donors, recipients and donor conceived children? How are these reproductive technologies regulated? How is kinship understood within these new family forms? Written by specialists from three different continents, Transnationalising Reproduction examines a broad range of issues concerning kinship and identity, citizenship and regulation, and global markets of reproductive labour; including gamete donation and gestational surrogacy. Indeed, this book seeks to highlight how reproductive technologies not only makes possible new forms of kinship and family formations, but also how these give rise to new, ethical, political and legal dilemmas about parenthood as well as new modes of discrimination and a re-distribution of medical risks. It also thoroughly investigates the ways in which a commodification of reproductive tissue and labour affects the practices, representations and gendered self-understandings of gamete donors, fertility patients and intended parents in different parts of the world. With a broad geographical scope, Transnationalising Reproduction offers new empirical and theoretical perspectives on third-party conception and demonstrates the need for more transnational approaches to third-party reproduction. This volume will appeal to postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers interested in fields such as Gender Studies, Health Care Sciences, Reproductive Technology and Medical Sociology.
ISSUES IN BIOMEDICAL ETHICS; General Editors: John Harris, University of Manchester; Soren Holm, University of Copenhagen.; Consulting Editor: Ranaan Gillon, Director, Imperial College Health Service, London.; North American Consulting Editor: Bonnie Steinbock, Professor of Philosophy, SUNY, Albany.; The late twentieth century has witnessed dramatic technological developments in biomedical science and the delivery of health care, and these developments have brought with them important social changes. All too often ethical analysis has lagged behind these changes. The purpose of this series is to provide lively, up-to-date, and authoritative studies for the increasingly large and diverse readership concerned with issues in biomedical ethics-not just healthcare trainees and professionals, but also social scientists, philosophers, lawyers, social workers, and legislators. The series will feature both single-author and multi-author books, short and accessible enough to be widely read, each of them focused on an issue of outstanding current importance and interest. Philosophers, doctors, and lawyers from several countries already feature among the authors lined up for the series. It promises to become the leading channel for the best original work in this burgeoning field.; This volume: The Future of Human Reproduction brings together new work, by an international group of contributors from various fields and perspectives, on ethical, social, and legal issues raised by recent advances in reproductive technology. These advances have put us in a position to choose what kinds of children and parents there should be; the aim of the essays is to illuminate how we should deal with these possibilities for choice. Topics discussed include gender and race selection, genetic engineering, fertility treatment, ovarian tissue transfer, and post-menopausal pregnancy. The central focus of the volume is the interface between reproductive choice and public regulation.; 'The Future of Human Reproduction is a roadmap for twenty-first century reproductive technologies written by leading thinkers in the field for philosophers, policy makers, and clinicians. However, it will perhaps be equally useful for parents and other members of our most important social institutions, as we struggle to cope with the rapidly changing reproductive horizon.
"Regulating Reproduction" examines the genesis of reproductive rights in Britain and France over the course of the 20th Century. Melanie Latham concentrates on the role played by the various interest groups involved in the area of reproduction, namely medical professionals, religious groups, and feminists using the Policy Network Theory on interest group behavior. Latham combines legal analysis with political analysis and offers a cross-cultural perspective.
In the United States, egg donation for reproduction and egg donation for research involve the same procedures, the same risks, and the same population of donors—disadvantaged women at the intersections of race and class. Yet cultural attitudes and state-level policies regarding egg donation are dramatically different depending on whether the donation is for reproduction or for research. Erin Heidt-Forsythe explores the ways that framing egg donation itself creates diverse politics in the United States, which, unlike other Western democracies, has no centralized method of regulating donations, relying instead on market forces and state legislatures to regulate egg donation and reproductive technologies. Beginning with a history of scientific research around the human egg, the book connects historical debates about the “natural” (reproduction) and “unnatural” (research) uses of women’s eggs to contemporary political regulation of egg donation. Examining egg donation in California, New York, Arizona, and Louisiana and coupled with original data on how egg donation has been regulated over the last twenty years, this book is the first comprehensive overview and analysis of the politics of egg donation across the United States.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), defined as technologies that bring together human gametes for the purposes of reproduction and regenerative research, have enabled new life for those expanding their families, as well as those looking to treat degenerative diseases. As meanings of life have shifted in an era of evolving reproductive technology, the state has new opportunities to intervene, mediate, and prohibit the use of ARTs in the United States. In light of the moral and instrumental ways to understand ARTs and the social implications of ART practices, what is the role of the state in ART oversight? Moreover, how does issue framing of ARTs impact legislative outcomes? Using egg donation as a particular site of morals and markets, I investigate these question through the legislative activity on egg donation at the state level, as well as the public policy making processes about egg donation. Given the empirical and theoretical gaps in ART scholarship about state-level legislation in the US in the contemporary period, this dissertation aims is to answers these research questions through original data on various kinds of ART legislation between 1990 and 2010, at the state level. Employing hazard analysis of egg donation legislation between 1998 and 2008 in 49 states, this project advances the argument that state-level legislative activities on egg donation are vibrant, and increased by scientific stakeholders in ARTs, as well as the presence of women in politics and economic life. Looking closer at cases of egg donation legislation in case studies of California, New York, Arizona, and Louisiana, I find that legislators frame egg donation as moral and instrumental social issues--with varying degrees of legislative success. I argue that state-level oversight has problematic implications for the concept of stratified reproduction and suggest applying the equal liberty principle to ART policymaking. Finally, I argue that the absence of political debate--particularly the absence of feminist voices--warrants new political solutions to increase democratic discourse on ART issues.
Reproductive medicine has been very successful at developing new therapies in recent years and people having difficulties conceiving have more options available to them than ever before. These developments have led to a new institutional landscape emerging and this innovative volume explores how health and social structures are being developed and reconfigured to take into account the increased use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF treatments. Using Sweden as a central case study, it explores how the process of institutionalizing new assisted reproductive technologies includes regulatory agencies, ethical committees, political bodies and discourses, scientific communities, patient and activists groups, and entrepreneurial activities in the existing clinics and new entrants to the industry. It draws on new theoretical developments in institutional theory and outlines how health innovations are always embedded in social relations including ethical, political, and financial concerns. This book will be of interest to advanced students and academics in health management, science and technology studies, the sociology of health and illness and organisational theory.
This new book provides a clear and accessible analysis of the various ways in which human reproduction is regulated. A comprehensive exposition of the law relating to birth control,abortion, pregnancy, childbirth, surrogacy and assisted conception is accompanied by an exploration of some of the complex ethical dilemmas that emerge when one of the most intimate areas of human life is subjected to regulatory control. Throughout the book, two principal themes recur. First, particular emphasis is placed upon the special difficulties that arise in regulating new technological intervention in all aspects of the reproductive process. Second, the concept of reproductive autonomy is both interrogated and defended. This book offers a readable and engaging account of the complex relationships between law, technology and reproduction. It will be useful for lecturers and students taking medical law or ethics courses. It should also be of interest to anyone with a more general interest in women's bodies and the law, or with the profound regulatory consequences of new technologies.