Regulation in the European Electricity Sector

Author: Maciej M. Sokołowski

Publisher:

ISBN: 0815358318

Category:

Page: 236

View: 229

Since the very beginning of European integration, electricity has been within the legal sphere of the EU. Much of this is found within the binding European acts making up the framework of the Energy Packages. The established legal institutions have had a significant impact on the shape of the energy market in Europe. Nevertheless, the European energy market still seems to be developing, as demonstrated by the current lively discussion about the state of the Energy Union. Regulation in the European Electricity Sector delves into European energy law and reflects on some of the primary issues related to the public legal impact on the European energy sector. The book offers a brief explanation of the background operation of the electricity sector, as well as liberalisation within the area, and traces the evolution of the EU¿s approach towards the issue of public law regulation within the electricity sector. Finally, the book presents an analysis of European and national laws, considering their interpretation, and explores the future of public law regulation. Aimed at giving the reader a deep insight into a nature of the state¿s presence in the power sector, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of EU energy law and policy.
European Electricity Systems in Transition

Author: A. Midttun

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008053127X

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 839

The electricity generation and supply industry is undergoing rapid changes in the 1990s. As demands for economic power continue to increase, governments throughout Europe are contemplating a reformation of electricity policy for the 21st century. This book discusses the current state of the European electricity generation and supply industry and the options for improvement in the future. Written by renowned experts in the field of energy policy and economics, the book includes detailed case studies of national electricity regulation from around Europe, and a timely overview of European Union electricity policy on liberalisation and deregulation. Given that the changes to the European electricity industries will provide valuable pointers to change in other areas, this book is essential reading for industry analysts, policy makers, utility companies and others with an interest in the future of energy generation and transmission worldwide.
Investing in EU Energy Security

Author: Henrik Bjørnebye

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789041131188

Category: Law

Page: 482

View: 678

La 4e de couverture indique : "Since the introduction a quarter-century ago of market-based investments in the production of electricity and other critical services, our awareness of the underlying issues affecting the supply and consumption of energy has changed radically. No longer can Europe (or any region) rely on over-capacity of electricity generation and inexpensive primary energy fuels, or disregard the signs of potentially catastrophic climate change. The author of this timely and sharply focused book shows that, in the light of our current knowledge, ensuring new investments - and the right investments - in electricity generation constitutes an urgent energy policy challenge facing the EU over the coming decades. He accordingly makes the case for a serious reconsideration of the market facilitation and market intervention rules under electricity market legislation in the EU. In the first detailed legal analysis of the EU's internal electricity market framework for investments in electricity generation facilities from the perspective of security of supply, this book cover such legal issues as the following in precise detail : applicability of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) ; security of supply as a ground for exemption on the basis of public security ; justifications of public intervention ; the applicability of EU State aid provisions to investments in energy security ; requirements imposed by EU law on Member States for ensuring cost-efficient investments in European supply security ; facilitation of renewable energy sources and cogeneration in the environmental interest ; the Court of Justice's approach to Member State interventions ; the Court's decisions on restrictions on free movement in the environmental interest ; Member States' right to launch tendering procedures for new generation capacity ; Member States' right to impose public service obligations in the general economic interest on certain undertakings ; and relationship between the provisions of the TFEU and those of the Euratom Treaty in relation to investments in nuclear power generation. Throughout the study, in addition to his analysis of the decisions of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance, the author takes into account legal literature and Union reports, preparatory works, and working papers. The book demonstrates convincingly that today's energy supply challenges must be based on a broader balancing of security, competitiveness and sustainability interests. It suggests that the internal electricity market provisions of the Electricity Directive and the Security of Electricity Supply Directive would benefit from focusing more intensely on requiring investments in technologies and primary energy sources that will help mitigate climate change and reduce European energy import dependency, and less on the need for ensuring cost-efficient investments through market-based means. Through its detailed analysis of EU law in an area of great significance to both market participants and the public sector, Investing in EU Energy Security will be welcomed by legal advisors, whether working for the EU electricity industry or public agencies responsible for implementation of internal electricity market measures, as well as by academics in this hugely important field of current research."
Competition in Energy Markets

Author: Peter D. Cameron

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198257708

Category: Law

Page: 544

View: 444

Recent years have seen a major growth in the European law concerning the operation of the energy industry, especially with respect to electricity and gas. Several directives have been adopted that are aimed at the promotion of competition in this key sector of the European economy. At thesame time, the jurisprudence of the European Court had developed further on matters such as access to networks, import and export monopolies and security of supply.In this book the authors examine the principal legislation, Treaty provisions and decisions of the Court of Justice and Court of First Instance of the EU as they related to the promotion of competition in European energy markets. In particular, two chapters are devoted to a detailed analysis of theprovisions of the two directives that set out common rules for the creation of an internal market in the electricity and gas sectors. In each case, the analysis is set in the context of the various programmes of energy market liberalization and privatization in the Member States, which aresummarized in this book. However, the authors also take the wider pan-European context into account, explaining the requirements and the implications of the European Economic Area Agreement, the Energy Charter Treaty and the Europe Agreements with countries of Central and Eastern Europe.The approach adopted by the authors is both analytical and historical. They locate the legislation in the context of the EU Internal Market programme that began in the late 1980s and explain the roles played by the various parties (energy industries, consumers and EU institutions) in shaping thefinal legislation. Importantly, they explain how the framework character of the energy directives has led to further important rule-making in the implementation of the directives across the EU. They conclude that a co-ordinated response between the European Commission and the national regulatorswill be essential to resolve problems arising in the transition to a competitive energy market in the EU.
The Regulation of Power Exchanges in Europe

Author: Martha M. Roggenkamp

Publisher: Intersentia nv

ISBN: 9789050953177

Category: Law

Page: 338

View: 949

The liberalisation of the electricity sector has changed the way in which electricity is traded. De facto or legal vertical monopolies are gradually abandoned and new participants have entered the market. At the wholesale level, one of the important developments is the establishment of organised electricity markets, i.e. electricity power exchanges. This book analyses the role and evaluates the impact of these new organised markets, which until now received little attention. The introduction provides an overview of the developments on EC level as this creates the legal environment within which power exchanges operate. The implementation of the EC Electricity Directive has inter alia resulted in a commodization of electricity trading. Thereupon the development of power pools and electricity exchanges is discussed as well as the products which can be traded. Subsequently, the development of the most important national and/or regional exchanges in Europe will be examined. National experts will analyse the role of power exchanges in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, Spain and Italy. The authors analyse the most important developments in their jurisdictions according to a fixed outline (e.g. implementation of the EC Electricity Directive, market structure, emergence and functioning of the organised market, products traded and the impact of cross-border trade) which allows for a comparative analysis and facilitates understanding. Finally, some conclusions with regard to the establishment of a single electricity market will be presented as well as some future developments.
Capacity Mechanisms in the EU Energy Markets

Author: Leigh Hancher

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192849809

Category:

Page: 513

View: 780

Capacity remuneration mechanisms (or simply capacity mechanisms) have become a fact of life in member states' energy markets and are one of the hottest topics in the wider European regulatory debate. Concerned about the security of electricity supply, national governments are implementing subsidy schemes to encourage investment in conventional power generation capacity, alongside already heavily subsidized renewable energy sources. With the increasingly connected European electricity markets, the introduction of a capacity mechanism in one country not only tends to distort its national market but may also have unforeseeable consequences for neighbouring electricity markets. As these mechanisms are adopted by member states with limited supra-national coordination as well as consideration for the cross-border impact, they tend to cause serious market distortions and put the future of the European internal electricity market at risk. This second edition will take stock of how capacity mechanisms have actually worked so far and consider the consequences they have for the European internal electricity market. It will include a detailed overview of national capacity mechanisms, their implications for the EU internal market, and will outline the nature of market failures which are likely to occur in the European electricity markets. This edition is intended to serve as a point of reference for regulators and policy-makers on how to design optimal capacity mechanisms in Europe. It will be an invaluable resource for anyone interested in energy market design, regulation, and competition issues.
Market Building through Antitrust

Author: Adrien de Hauteclocque

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9780857937742

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 14607

View: 936

By mixing legal, political and economic perspectives, this book will appeal to a wide range of readers from academia in law, economics and political science, regulatory and competition authorities, as well as legal and consulting practices and business
External regulatory influence of the EU in the energy sector in countries of the Energy Community

Author: Kristen Feiter

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783346394415

Category: Political Science

Page: 9

View: 879

Academic Paper from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: International relations, grade: 8, Maastricht University, language: English, abstract: Energy policy is one of the most electrifying aspects of European integration and regulation. Ever since the goals of the EU energy-policy have first been mentioned in Article 194 TFEU of the 2009 Lisbon treaty, this sector has gained ever more importance. It is remarkable, that it took the EU so long to integrate, even that the EU started as a project in the energy sector. The 1952 Coal and Steel Treaty, together with the 1957 Euratom Treaty are one of the major founding treaties of the European Community (EC). By regulating the internal market of the EU, the Commission (COM) attempts to complement the existing rules in order to ensure the functioning of the internal market. Historically, the energy markets have been organised as public owned monopolies that were operated at a national level. In these times of independent but interconnected energy networks, only wholesale transactions were possible. These transactions took place between the owners of the energy grids (Vasconcelos, 2005; Matlary 1997). Most countries saw their energy markets as an important public service that was a key strategic asset and from large geopolitical and economic importance. This lead to a reluctance of liberalizing their respective energy markets to the extent that by 1994, only seven Member States (MS) have created independent regulatory agencies (Padgett, 2011; Eberlein 2008, Bartle 2005). By introducing the energy packages, the COM hoped to achieve a more secure, competitive and sustainable energy supply for the EU. The internationalisation of the energy sector and the progressing integration of the EU required the necessity of harmonisation of laws and standardisation in this sector. Three European energy packages have been published by the COM to regulate the internal market and also to include third countries and other markets, in order to reach the common energy-related goals and climate targets. Whilst governing and harmonising the internal market, the EU has developed from being an experiment for market integration towards being one of the largest and most important economic and political global entities. This special role also implied new opportunities and consequences, such as regulatory influence towards the internal- and external market, as well as towards other economies and economic unions. Since the 1986 Single European Act (SEA), the externalisation of economic and social agendas can be observed.
The Struggle for Power in Europe

Author: Francis McGowan

Publisher: Brookings Inst Press

ISBN: STANFORD:36105016333531

Category: Political Science

Page: 116

View: 404

This work traces the development of the European electricity market and EC reforms. It shows how EC policy came about and considers what future direction it might take - competition or co-operation, integration or subsidiary. It addresses some typical questions. How will the policy affect consumers, suppliers, and the industry itself? Will a European electricity industry require a European regulator? And, what scope will there be for national policies?
European Energy Law and Policy

Author: Heiko Krüger

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781786430342

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 356

EU energy law and policy have become more and more complex in recent years. Today these areas feature a multitude of layers concerning not only regulation of the power industry, but also security of energy supply, climate change, consumer needs and technical innovation. This textbook serves as an introduction to this distinctive field. For readers without much experience with the EU, the author provides a separate chapter which outlines the institutional structure and functioning of the European Union in the field of energy policy. Tables of key court decisions and key legislation, review questions and further reading lists ultimately help to give readers a lasting impression of one of the most vibrant fields of EU law and policy.
Capacity Mechanisms in the EU Energy Market

Author: Leigh Hancher

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191066184

Category: Law

Page: 608

View: 370

Ensuring an adequate, long-term energy supply is a paramount concern in Europe. EU member states now intervene by encouraging investment in generation capacity, offering an additional revenue stream for conventional power plants in addition to the existing, heavily subsidised investments in renewable energy sources. These capacity remuneration mechanisms (or simply capacity mechanisms) have become a hot topic in the wider European regulatory debate. European electricity markets are increasingly interconnected, so the introduction of a capacity mechanism in one country not only distorts its national market but may have unforeseeable consequences for neighbouring electricity markets. If these mechanisms are adopted by several member states with no supra-national coordination and no consideration for their cross-border impact, they may cause serious market distortions and put the future of the European internal electricity market at risk. This book provides readers with an in-depth analysis of capacity mechanisms, written by an expert team of policy-makers, economists, and legal professionals. It will be a first point of reference for regulators and policy-makers responsible for designing optimal capacity mechanisms in Europe, and will be an invaluable resource for academics and practitioners in the fields of energy, regulation, and competition.
Regulation in the European Electricity Sector

Author: Maciej M Sokołowski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317332114

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 209

View: 306

Since the very beginning of European integration, electricity has been within the legal sphere of the EU. Much of this is found within the binding European acts making up the framework of the Energy Packages. The established legal institutions have had a significant impact on the shape of the energy market in Europe. Nevertheless, the European energy market still seems to be developing, as demonstrated by the current lively discussion about the state of the Energy Union. Regulation in the European Electricity Sector delves into European energy law and reflects on some of the primary issues related to the public legal impact on the European energy sector. The book offers a brief explanation of the background operation of the electricity sector, as well as liberalisation within the area, and traces the evolution of the EU’s approach towards the issue of public law regulation within the electricity sector. Finally, the book presents an analysis of European and national laws, considering their interpretation, and explores the future of public law regulation. Aimed at giving the reader a deep insight into a nature of the state’s presence in the power sector, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of EU energy law and policy.