The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century

Author: James A. Harris

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191502682

Category: Philosophy

Page: 688

View: 865

Philosophy in eighteenth-century Britain was diverse, vibrant, and sophisticated. This was the age of Hume and Berkeley and Reid, of Hutcheson and Kames and Smith, of Ferguson and Burke and Wollstonecraft. Important and influential works were published in every area of philosophy, from the theory of vision to theories of political resistance, from the philosophy of language to accounts of ways of governing the passions. The philosophers of eighteenth-century Britain were enormously influential, in France, in Italy, in Germany, and in America. Their ideas and arguments remain a powerful presence in philosophy three centuries later. This Oxford Handbook is the first book ever to provide comprehensive coverage of the full range of philosophical writing in Britain in the eighteenth century. It provides accounts of the writings of all the major figures, but also puts those figures in the context provided by a host of writers less well known today. The book has five principal sections: 'Logic and Metaphysics', 'The Passions', 'Morals', 'Criticism', and 'Politics'. Each section comprises four chapters, providing detailed coverage of all of the important aspects of its subject matter. There is also an introductory section, with chapters on the general character of philosophizing in eighteenth-century Britain, and a concluding section on the important question of the relation at this time between philosophy and religion. The authors of the chapters are experts in their fields. They include philosophers, historians, political theorists, and literary critics, and they teach in colleges and universities in Britain, in Europe, and in North America.
Everyday Greed: Analysis and Appraisal

Author: Michael S. Pritchard

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030700874

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 123

View: 247

This collection examines how greed should be understood and appraised. Roundly condemned by virtually all religions, greed receives mixed appraisals in the domains of business and economics. The volume examines these mixed appraisals and how they fare in light of their implications for greed in our everyday world. Greed in children is uniformly criticized by parents, other adults, and even children’s peers. However, in adulthood, greed is commended by some as essential to profit-seeking in business and for offering the greatest promise in promoting economic prosperity for everyone. Those who advocate a more permissive position on greed in the adult world typically concede that some constraints on greed are needed. However, the supporting literature offers little analysis of what greed is (as distinct from, for example, the effort to meet modest needs, or the pursuit of ordinary self-interested ends). It offers little clarification of what sorts of constraints on greed are needed. Nor is careful attention given to difficulties children might have in making a transition without moral loss from regarding greed as inappropriate to its later qualified acceptance. Through a secular approach, this book attempts to make significant inroads in remedying these shortcomings.
Pufendorf’s Theory of Sociability: Passions, Habits and Social Order

Author: Heikki Haara

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319993256

Category: Philosophy

Page: 188

View: 448

This book centres on Samuel Pufendorf’s (1632–1694) moral and political philosophy, a subject of recently renewed interest among intellectual historians, philosophers and legal scholars in the English-speaking world. Pufendorf’s significance in conceptualizing sociability in a way that ties moral philosophy, the theory of the state, political economy, and moral psychology together has already been acknowledged, but this book is the first systematic investigation of the moral psychological underpinnings of Pufendorf’s theory of sociability in their own right. Readers will discover how Pufendorf’s psychological and social explanation of sociability plays a crucial role in his natural law theory. By drawing attention to Pufendorf’s scattered remarks and observations on human psychology, a new interpretation of the importance of moral psychology is presented. The author maintains that Pufendorf’s reflection on the psychological and physical capacities of human nature also matters for his description of how people adopt sociability as their moral standard in practice. We see how, since Pufendorf’s interest in human nature is mainly political, moral psychological formulations are important for Pufendorf’s theorizing of social and political order. This work is particularly useful for scholars investigating the multifaceted role of passions and emotions in the history of moral and political philosophy. It also affords a better understanding of what later philosophers, such as Smith, Hume or Rousseau, might have find appealing in Pufendorf’s writings. As such, this book will also interest researchers of the Enlightenment, natural law and early modern philosophy.
Encyclopedia of Political Theory

Author: Mark Bevir

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781506332727

Category: Political Science

Page: 1584

View: 660

For a free 30-day online trial to this title, visit https://us.sagepub.com/freetrial How do we arrange our collective affairs? Why do we live together in the ways we do? How ought we to live together? All humans think about the world they live in, its history and future, and the ideals by which they want to live in relation to others. How we think today decisively influences the world of tomorrow. This encyclopedia attempts to bring greater clarity and understanding to political debate. Drawing together a team of international scholars, the Encyclopedia of Political Theory examines the ideas of the major political theorists from before Plato to our own times; the main schools of political thought; the concepts and issues that have captured the imagination and attention of political theorists; and some of the main institutions and practices inspired by political thought. With more than 450 entries, these three volumes provide a quick, one-stop source to key topics in the field. Key Features Examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them Includes specific lists of entries that deal with constitutional thought and democratic thought Refers to distinctive norms and features of various governments, legal systems, and societies Devotes large parts to the history of ideas about government, ethics, and society Provides a chronology of political theory to help readers see how a given theorist, school, or issue fits into the bigger historical picture Key Themes Ancient Thought Applied Ethics Biographies Comparative Theory Constitutional Thought Critical Theory Democratic Thought Early Modern Thought International Theory Justice Liberal Theory Medieval Thought Modern Theory Power and Authority Religious Thought Self and Community This work is designed to serve as a reference source for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary political theory. It will be a welcome addition to any academic or public library.
Greed, Self-Interest and the Shaping of Economics

Author: Rudi Verburg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351977791

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 289

Since 2008, profound questions have been asked about the driving forces and self-regulating potential of the economic system, political control and morality. With opinion turning against markets and self-interest, economists found themselves on the wrong side of the argument. This book explores how the past of economics can contribute to today’s debates. The book considers how economics took shape as philosophers probed into the viability of commercial society and its potential to generate positive-sum outcomes. It explains how dreams of affluence, morality and happiness were built upon human greed and vanity. It covers the bumpy road of the construction and reconstruction of this dream, exploring the debate on the foundations, conditions and limitations of the idea of the social utility of greed and vanity. Revisiting this debate provides a rich source of ideas in rethinking economics and the basic beliefs concerning our economic system today.
Love Or Greatness (Routledge Revivals)

Author: Roslyn Wallach Bologh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135156435

Category: Philosophy

Page: 301

View: 635

This work, first published in 1990, reissues the first thorough examination of the essentially masculine nature of Max Weber's social and political thinking. Through a detailed examination of his central texts, the author demonstrates Weber's masculine reading of 'social life' and shows how his work advocates a masculine form of life that poses a challenge to contemporary women and to feminism. In particular, she addresses the patriarchal implications of Weber's belief in the need to relegate the ethic of brotherly love to a private sphere in order to make possible rational action and the achievement of greatness in the public sphere.
The British Moralists on Human Nature and the Birth of Secular Ethics

Author: Michael B. Gill

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139458290

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 441

Uncovering the historical roots of naturalistic, secular contemporary ethics, in this 2006 volume Michael Gill shows how the British moralists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries completed a Copernican revolution in moral philosophy. They effected a shift from thinking of morality as independent of human nature to thinking of it as part of human nature itself. He also shows how the British Moralists - sometimes inadvertently, sometimes by design - disengaged ethical thinking, first from distinctly Christian ideas and then from theistic commitments altogether. Examining in detail the arguments of Whichcote, Cudworth, Shaftesbury, and Hutcheson against Calvinist conceptions of original sin and egoistic conceptions of human motivation, Gill also demonstrates how Hume combined the ideas of earlier British moralists with his own insights to produce an account of morality and human nature that undermined some of his predecessors' most deeply held philosophical goals.
Sociability and Cosmopolitanism

Author: David Burrow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317321668

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 567

This collection of essays expands the focus of Enlightenment studies to include countries outside the core nations of France, Germany and Britain. Notions of sociability and cosmopolitanism are explored as ways in which people sought to improve society.
Early Modern Natural Law Theories

Author: T. Hochstrasser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401703918

Category: History

Page: 342

View: 267

This collection offers a timely opportunity to re-examine both the coherence of the concept of an ‘early Enlightenment’, and the specific contribution of natural law theories to its formation. It reassesses the work of major thinkers such as Grotius, Hobbes, Locke, Malebranche, Pufendorf and Thomasius, and evaluates the appeal and importance of the discourse of natural jurisprudence both to those working inside conventional educational and political structures and to those outside.
From Loneliness to Solitude in Person-centred Health Care

Author: Stephen Buetow

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781000645392

Category: Medical

Page: 192

View: 883

This innovative book provides a new conceptual analysis of loneliness – a condition associated with severe health consequences, including increased morbidity and early death. Arguing that social connection is not the only answer, it explores pathways for transforming loneliness to healthy solitude. The first part of the book draws on the humanities and arts, including psychology, philosophy and literature to analyse the common, and potentially serious, problem of loneliness. It makes the case that the condition is less a deficiency than a state of self-disconnection that modernity feeds through social forces. The second part of the book looks at how person-centred health care can help educate persons to transform loneliness into healthy solitude. It provides an analysis of self-connection and spiritual connection, discussing how these forms of contact can mitigate risks associated with both lack of social connection, and social connection itself, such as self-disconnection and rejection by others. It goes on to demonstrate that connection to the self and spirit can make aloneness a resource and facilitate access to benefits of connecting with others. This thought-provoking book provides students, scholars and practitioners from a range of health and social care backgrounds with a new way of thinking about, researching and practising with lonely people.
Corporate Social Responsibility

Author: Jeremy Moon

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199671816

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 177

View: 503

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) represents the social accountability a company holds for society. This Very Short Introductions looks at how and why it developed, how it is implemented in practice, and the benefits and controversies it raises for companies, governments, and society worldwide.