Studies of Passive Clauses

Author: Paul Martin Postal

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0887060838

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 271

View: 904

In this work, Paul M. Postal supports the universalist theory of language by examining passive clauses. Contrary to a skeptical tradition, Postal argues that passive clauses are cross-linguistically identifiable and characterizable. This study proposes refinements of the analysis of the natural language grammatical category Passive Clause. These refinements include an account of the notion 'dummy nominal,' central to the analysis of impersonal passive clauses; additions permitting a proper typology of the major known subtypes of Passive Clause; a generalization permitting application to clauses whose subjects are not earlier level direct objects; and, construction of precise rule concepts to represent restrictions on passive clauses. The passive domain supports the universalist approach in three distinguishable ways: (1) by permitting formulation of otherwise apparently unstatable lawful characteristics of all passive structures; (2) by facilitating statement of language-specific passive constraints holding in diverse languages; and, (3) by allowing uniform statement in grammars of recurrent constraints on passives. Each mode of support is applied to actual cases based on material from more than a dozen languages from English and French to Quiche (Mayan) and Chi-Mwi:ni (Bantu).
Tzotzil Clause Structure

Author: J. Aissen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9027723656

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 330

View: 467

xv NOTES ON THE ORTHOGRAPHY AND CITATIONS xxi LIST OF ABBREVIA TIONS XXIIl CHAPTER 1: GRAMMATICAL NOTES 1 1. Introduction 1 2. Basics 1 3. Major Lexical Classes 2 3. 1. V 3 3. 2. N 3 3. 3. A 5 3. 3. 1. Quantifiers 6 3. 3. 2. Existentials and Locatives 6 4. Minor Lexical Classes 7 4. 1. Clitics 7 4. 1. 1. Clause-proclitic 7 4. 1. 2. S-enclitic 8 4. 1. 3. V-enclitic 8 4. 1. 4. Clause-second 9 4. 2. Directionals 9 4. 3. Particles 11 5. Flagging 11 6. Word Order 12 7. Construction Survey 12 7. 1. Negation 12 13 7. 2. Questions 7. 3. Complement Clauses 14 16 7. 4. Motion cum Purpose 17 7. 5. Topics 7. 6. Prepredicate Position 18 19 Notes CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL SKETCH 20 20 1. Arcs vii Vlll T ABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 1. Sets of Grammatical Relations 22 1. 2. Stratum 24 Ergative and Absolutive 1. 3. 25 1. 4. 25 Formal Connections between Arcs 2. Sponsor and Erase 26 2. 1. Successors 26 2. 2. Replacers 28 2. 3. Self-Sponsor and Self-Erase 30 3. Ancestral Relations 31 4. Pair Networks 31 Resolution of Overlapping Arcs 32 5. 6. Coordinate Determination 33 7. Rules and Laws 35 8. Word Order 36 9. APG Versions of RG Laws 36 9. 1. Stratal Uniqueness Law 36 9. 2. Chomeur Law and Motivated Chomage Law 36 Relational Succession Law and Host Limitation Law 9. 3.
Studies in Turkish Linguistics

Author: Dan Isaac Slobin

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027228765

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 300

View: 244

Turkish is a member of the Turkic family of languages, which extends over a vast area in southern and eastern Siberia and adjacent portions of Iran, Afganistan, and China. Turkic, in turn, belongs to the Altaic family of languages. This book deals with the morphological and syntactic, semantic and discourse-based, synchronic and diachronic aspects of the Turkish language. Although an interest in morphosyntactic issues pervades the entire collection, the contributions can be grouped in terms of relative attention to syntax, semantics and discourse, and acquisition.
Computational and Quantitative Studies

Author: M.A.K. Halliday

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781847142740

Category: Computers

Page: 312

View: 836

This is a deeply impressive book by a prominent linguist. As always, Professor Halliday's contributions are pervasively readable and stimulating - Jan Svartvik, Emeritus Professor, Lund University, Sweden. Throughout his career, Professor Halliday has continued to address the issue of the application of linguistic scholarship to Computational and Quantitative Studies. The sixth volume in the collected works of Professor M. A. K. Halliday includes works that span the last five decades, covering developments in machine translation and corpus linguistics. The principles and methods outlined in these papers remain as relevant today as when they were first published, continuing to point the way forward in an endeavour where success depends more on advancing our knowledge of language than machines.
Authorial Stance in Research Articles

Author: P. Pho

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137032782

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 249

View: 375

How do I structure a journal article?; "Can I use 'I' in a research article?"; "Should I use an active or passive voice?" - Many such questions will be answered in this book, which documents the linguistic devices that authors use to show how they align or distance themselves from arguments and ideas, while maintaining conventions of objectivity.
Linguistic Variation in Research Articles

Author: Bethany Gray

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027268044

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 222

View: 944

Linguistic Variation in Research Articles investigates the linguistic characteristics of academic research articles, going beyond a traditional analysis of the generically-defined research article to take into account varied realizations of research articles within and across disciplines. It combines corpus-based analyses of 70+ linguistic features with analyses of the situational, or non-linguistic, characteristics of the Academic Journal Registers Corpus: 270 research articles from 6 diverse disciplines (philosophy, history, political science, applied linguistics, biology, physics) and representing three sub-registers (theoretical, quantitative, and qualitative research). Comprehensive analyses include a lexical/grammatical survey, an exploration of structural complexity, and a Multi-Dimensional analysis, all interpreted relative to the situational analysis of the corpus. The finding that linguistic variation in research articles does not occur along a single parameter like discipline is discussed relative to our understanding of disciplinary practices, the multidimensional nature of variation in research articles, and resulting methodological considerations for corpus studies of disciplinary writing.
Studies in the Modern Russian Language

Author: W. Harrison

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 0521094615

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 59

View: 579

A series of detailed studies, first published in 1967, of the most characteristic, and often the most difficult, features of the modern Russian language, designed to supplement the necessarily over-compressed treatment given in standard courses. The first study, 'The Expression of the Passive Voice', addresses the variety of Russian constructions that are available to the English-speaking student when confronted by a passive construction which he has to translate into Russian. Mr Harrison summarises the three main means of expressing the passive voice in Russian and points out the differences of emphasis between them. The second study, 'Agreement of the Verb-Predicate with a Collective Subject', examines the conclusions of several authorities on this point of Russian grammar. Mr Mullen analyses examples taken from various Russian sources and suggests factors which favour the choice of one or other agreement with collective subjects in current usage.
Language Typology and Language Universals / Sprachtypologie und sprachliche Universalien / La typologie des langues et les universaux linguistiques. 2. Halbband

Author: Martin Haspelmath

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110194265

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1012

View: 992

This handbook provides a comprehensive and thorough survey of our current insights into the diversity and unity found across the 6000 languages of this planet. The 125 articles include inter alia chapters on the patterns and limits of variation manifested by analogous structures, constructions and linguistic devices across languages (e.g. word order, tense and aspect, inflection, color terms and syllable structure). Other chapters cover the history, methodology and the theory of typology, as well as the relationship between language typology and other disciplines. The authors of the individual sections and chapters are for the most part internationally known experts on the relevant topics. The vast majority of the articles are written in English, some in French or German. The handbook is not only intended for the expert in the fields of typology and language universals, but for all of those interested in linguistics. It is specifically addressed to all those who specialize in individual languages, providing basic orientation for their analysis and placing each language within the space of what is possible and common in the languages of the world.
Antipassive

Author: Katarzyna Janic

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027260260

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 645

View: 910

This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the morpho-syntactic and semantic aspects of the antipassive construction from synchronic, diachronic, and typological perspectives. The nineteen contributions assembled in this volume address a wide range of aspects pertinent to the antipassive construction, such as lexical semantics, the properties of the antipassive markers, as well as the issue of fuzzy boundaries between the antipassive construction and a range of other formally and functionally similar constructions in genealogically and areally diverse languages. Purely synchronically oriented case studies are supplemented by contributions that shed light on the diachronic development of the antipassive construction and the antipassive markers. The book should be of central interest to many scholars, in particular to those working in the field of language typology, semantics, syntax, and historical linguists, as well as to specialists of the language families discussed in the individual contributions.
Discourse Studies Reader

Author: Ken Hyland

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781441192653

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 360

View: 994

Since 2005, the Continuum Discourse series, under the editorship of Professor Ken Hyland, has published some of the most cutting-edge work in the field of discourse analysis.This edited collection offers a showcase of the work produced by its authors and reads as fully-functional book in its own right. The work of Paul Baker, Frances Christie and Greg Myers features, amongst others. With an introduction by Professor Hyland, the chapters are organized thematically to provide a look a research methods, examine at the various types of institutional discourses covered by the series, and finally, a look to arguably the future of the field - electronic discourses in an electronic medium, for example Twitter, SMS and Blogs. This is an essential purchase for those involved in discourse analysis in any capacity.
Teaching English Through ELA, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies

Author: Long Peng

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781000595307

Category: Education

Page: 278

View: 380

Accessible and hands-on, this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to teaching language through content, an approach known as Content-Based Language Teaching (CBLT). A content-based, language-focused approach to teaching in the disciplines is essential to serving the language and disciplinary needs of English learners (ELs) in the classroom. Guided by learning standards and informed by research, this book demonstrates how content materials in the English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies can be harnessed to develop the English language proficiency of ELs as well as advance their disciplinary knowledge and skills. Using content materials in ELA, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies as a starting point, this textbook illustrates how to teach English as an additional language effectively by integrating language instruction with disciplinary teaching. It showcases numerous learning and instructional activities, complete with targeted language exemplified in sentential and discourse contexts, direct instruction, teacher modeling, guided and individual practices, and assessments, which are further backed up by detailed discussions of their goals, rationales, and implementation. This textbook also features a discussion of differentiation to address the varied needs of students. To further assist readers in determining how to incorporate language instruction, Peng identifies extensive possibilities for language teaching that are based on the same content materials and beyond those targeted by sample learning activities. Each chapter ends with three types of exercises—multiple-choice questions, open-ended discussion questions, and problems of application—to bolster understanding, promote reflection, and encourage application. Complementing the book are additional online resources, including ready-to-use PowerPoints, which are available on the book’s webpage at Routledge.com/9780367521134. Covering key issues such as characteristics of effective language instruction, differentiation, and the challenges associated with CBLT, this is an essential text in TESOL methods and content-area language teaching, as well as an invaluable resource for pre-service and in-service ESL/EFL teachers and content-area teachers who are interested in furthering their students’ language and literacy development.