Uses new methodologies, evidence, and topics to better understand ancient warfare and its place in culture and history New Approaches to Greek and Roman Warfare brings together essays from specialists in ancient history who employ contemporary tools and approaches to reveal new evidence and increase knowledge of ancient militaries and warfare. In-depth yet highly readable, this volume covers the most recent trends for understanding warfare, militaries, soldiers, non-combatants, and their roles in ancient cultures. Chronologically-organized chapters explore new methodologies, evidence, and topics while offering fresh and original perspectives on recent documentary and archaeological discoveries. Covering the time period from Archaic Greece to the Late Roman Empire, the text asks questions of both new and re-examined old evidence and discusses the everyday military life of soldiers and veterans. Chapters address unique topics such as neurophysiological explanations for why some soldiers panic and others do not in the same battle, Greek society’s handling of combat trauma in returning veterans, the moral aspects and human elements of ancient sieges, medical care in the late Roman Empire, and the personal experience of military servicemembers and their families. Each chapter is self-contained to allow readers to explore topics in any order they prefer. This book: Features case studies that examine psychological components of military service such as morale, panic, recovery, and trauma Offers discussions of the economics of paying for warfare in the Greek and Roman worlds and why Roman soldiers mutinied Covers examining human remains of ancient conflict, including interesting photos Discusses the role of women in families and as victims and addresses issues related to women and war Places discussions in the broader context of new wave military history and includes complete bibliographies and further reading suggestions Providing new material and topical focus, New Approaches to Greek and Roman Warfare is an ideal text for Greek History or Roman History courses, particularly those focusing on ancient warfare, as well as scholars and general readers with interest in the ancient militaries.
This book addresses the global history of technology, warfare and state formation from the Stone Age to the Information Age. Using a combination of top-down and bottom-up methodologies, it examines both interstate and intrastate conflicts with a focus on Eurasian technology and warfare. It shows how human agency and structural factors have intertwined, creating a complex web of technology and warfare. It also explores the interplay between technological and non-technological factors to chart the evolution of warfare from its origins to the present day, arguing that the interactions between civilian and military sectors have shaped the use of technology in warfare. Given its scope and depth, it is a valuable resource for researchers in fields such as world history, history of science and technology, history of warfare and imperialism and international relations.
A Companion to Livy features a collection of essays representing the most up-to-date international scholarship on the life and works of the Roman historian Livy. Features contributions from top Livian scholars from around the world Presents for the first time a new interpretation of Livy's historical philosophy, which represents a key to an overall interpretation of Livy's body of work Includes studies of Livy's work from an Indo-European comparative aspect Provides the most modern studies on literary archetypes for Livy's narrative of the history of early Rome
Over some 1200 years, the Romans proved adept at learning from military disaster and this was key to their eventual success and hegemony. Roman Military Disasters covers the most pivotal and decisive defeats, from the Celtic invasion of 390 BC to Alaric's sack of Rome in AD 410. Paul Chrystal details the politics and strategies leading to each conflict, how and why the Romans were defeated, the tactics employed, the generals and the casualties. However, the unique and crucial element of the book is its focus on the aftermath and consequences of defeat and how the lessons learnt enabled the Romans, usually, to bounce back and win.
It took the Romans almost exactly 200 years to conquer the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal). The skillful and tenacious resistance of the various inhabitants, utilizing superior mobility in the rugged terrain to wage a guerrilla war, made the region the graveyard of many a Roman army. But the lessons, though painful, were eventually learnt and the heat of this socalled fiery war forged the legions into a more effective force. Daniel Varga analyzes the strategies and tactics of both sides, drawing on the traditional literary sources but also the latest archaeological research. He examines the problems faced by the Roman army and the extent to which it was forced to adapt to meet, and eventually overcome, these challenges. His findings show the Spanish armies as more sophisticated than often thought. The author concludes that the Spanish campaigns exerted a powerful influence on the organization, tactics and equipment of the Roman army, helping to make it the supreme fighting machine it became.
This companion provides an extensive account of the Roman army, exploring its role in Roman politics and society as well as the reasons for its effectiveness as a fighting force. An extensive account of the Roman army, from its beginnings to its transformation in the later Roman Empire Examines the army as a military machine – its recruitment, training, organization, tactics and weaponry Explores the relationship of the army to Roman politics, economics and society more broadly Considers the geography and climate of the lands in which the Romans fought Each chapter is written by a leading expert in a particular subfield and takes account of the latest scholarly and archaeological research in that area
This collection of papers, arising from the Late Antique Archaeology conference series, explores war and warfare in Late Antiquity. Papers examine strategy and intelligence, weaponry, literary sources and topography, the West Roman Empire, the East Roman Empire, the Balkans, civil war and Italy.
This ground-breaking 5-volume reference is a comprehensive print and electronic resource covering the history of warfare from ancient times to the present day, across the entire globe. Arranged in A-Z format, the Encyclopedia provides an overview of the most important events, people, and terms associated with warfare - from the Punic Wars to the Mongol conquest of China, and the War on Terror; from the Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman ‘the Magnificent’, to the Soviet Military Commander, Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov; and from the crossbow to chemical warfare. Individual entries range from 1,000 to 6,000 words with the longer, essay-style contributions giving a detailed analysis of key developments and ideas. Drawing on an experienced and internationally diverse editorial board, the Encyclopedia is the first to offer readers at all levels an extensive reference work based on the best and most recent scholarly research. The online platform further provides interactive cross-referencing links and powerful searching and browsing capabilities within the work and across Wiley-Blackwell’s comprehensive online reference collection. Learn more at www.encyclopediaofwar.com. Selected by Choice as a 2013 Outstanding Academic Title Recipient of a 2012 PROSE Award honorable mention
From the moment its last king was expelled (traditionally in 753) the Roman republic had to fight for its very survival. Centuries of almost continuous warfare saw Romes armies evolve in response to a wide variety of threats which were met with mixed fortunes though always with ultimate success. As defence of the homeland turned to territorial expansion, Roman forces also had to adapt to sustained campaigns in varied terrain and climates, not to mention the changes in the Roman republic itself. Michael Sage traces the development of the republics army from its foundation (having first set the context of their regal antecedents), down to the time of its most famous leader, Julius Caesar. The transition from clan-based forces, through the Servian levy and the development of the manipular and cohortal legion is examined along with the associated weapons, tactics and operational capabilities. We see how the legions shaped up against the challenges of successive enemies from the Celts and Samnites, the Carthaginians and the hitherto-dominant Hellenistic armies based on the Macedonian-style pike phalanx.
In recent years, the debate on Romanisation has often been framed in terms of identity. Discussions have concentrated on how the expansion of empire impacted on the constructed or self-ascribed sense of belonging of its inhabitants, and just how the interaction between local identities and Roman ideology and practices may have led to a multicultural empire has been a central research focus. This volume challenges this perspective by drawing attention to the processes of identity formation that contributed to an imperial identity, a sense of belonging to the political, social, cultural and religious structures of the Empire. Instead of concentrating on politics and imperial administration, the volume studies the manifold ways in which people were ritually engaged in producing, consuming, organising, believing and worshipping that fitted the (changing) realities of empire. It focuses on how individuals and groups tried to do things 'the right way', i.e., the Greco-Roman imperial way. Given the deep cultural entrenchment of ritualistic practices, an imperial identity firmly grounded in such practices might well have been instrumental, not just to the long-lasting stability of the Roman imperial order, but also to the persistence of its ideals well into (Christian) Late Antiquity and post-Roman times.