The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128136979

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 174

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. Covers each global region in a systematic fashion, showing how regions compare in terms of problems faced and resolution approaches Includes a thorough chronology of alternatives research, thus providing a complete overview Focuses on methods of direct relevance to humans to address issues of efficacy and waste
The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128136980

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 643

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.
Principles of Toxicology

Author: Stephen M. Roberts

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119635178

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 821

Principles of Toxicology concisely and efficiently presents the scientific basis for toxicology as it applies to the workplace and the environment, covering diverse chemical hazards encountered in modern workplaces and natural environments and providing a practical understanding of these hazards for those concerned with protecting the health of humans and ecosystems. The work presents not only theory, but also practical information regarding chemical hazards to give the student and new professional a working knowledge of the practice of toxicology and the ability to solve problems in environmental and industrial settings. Case histories and examples from industrial and environmental exposures to chemicals are included to demonstrate the application of toxicological principles. To allow for seamless reader comprehension and further exploration of covered topics, the work is supplemented with numerous illustrations to clarify and summarize key points, as well as annotated bibliographies. In the 4th edition, all chapters and references have been updated to account for the latest scientific thinking, and new color figures have been added. New topics covered in 4th Edition of Principles of Toxicology include: Regulatory toxicology, including the key regulatory framework in which much of the field of toxicology operates Alternative methods in toxicology, including cutting-edge approaches to developing new information on the toxicity of drugs and chemicals The dilemma of selecting safe exposure limits, guiding readers through practical considerations and pitfalls in developing and using safe exposure limits Ecological risk assessment, with detailed discussion of methods and considerations when evaluating the effects of contaminants on plants and animals. Providing information on the principles of toxicology and the application of those principles to solve problems in environmental and industrial settings, Principles of Toxicology serves as an excellent textbook resource for advanced undergraduate, graduate, and professional students in a range of environmental and health fields. It is also valuable to health professionals who need toxicological information and assistance beyond what is found in an introductory text to general toxicology.
Information Resources in Toxicology

Author: Steve Gilbert

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128137253

Category: Medical

Page: 1054

View: 120

This new fifth edition of Information Resources in Toxicology offers a consolidated entry portal for the study, research, and practice of toxicology. Both volumes represents a unique, wide-ranging, curated, international, annotated bibliography, and directory of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. The editors and authors are among the leaders of the profession sharing their cumulative wisdom in toxicology’s subdisciplines. This edition keeps pace with the digital world in directing and linking readers to relevant websites and other online tools. Due to the increasing size of the hardcopy publication, the current edition has been divided into two volumes to make it easier to handle and consult. Volume 1: Background, Resources, and Tools, arranged in 5 parts, begins with chapters on the science of toxicology, its history, and informatics framework in Part 1. Part 2 continues with chapters organized by more specific subject such as cancer, clinical toxicology, genetic toxicology, etc. The categorization of chapters by resource format, for example, journals and newsletters, technical reports, organizations constitutes Part 3. Part 4 further considers toxicology’s presence via the Internet, databases, and software tools. Among the miscellaneous topics in the concluding Part 5 are laws and regulations, professional education, grants and funding, and patents. Volume 2: The Global Arena offers contributed chapters focusing on the toxicology contributions of over 40 countries, followed by a glossary of toxicological terms and an appendix of popular quotations related to the field. The book, offered in both print and electronic formats, is carefully structured, indexed, and cross-referenced to enable users to easily find answers to their questions or serendipitously locate useful knowledge they were not originally aware they needed. Among the many timely topics receiving increased emphasis are disaster preparedness, nanotechnology, -omics, risk assessment, societal implications such as ethics and the precautionary principle, climate change, and children’s environmental health. Introductory chapters provide a backdrop to the science of toxicology, its history, the origin and status of toxicoinformatics, and starting points for identifying resources. Offers an extensive array of chapters organized by subject, each highlighting resources such as journals, databases,organizations, and review articles. Includes chapters with an emphasis on format such as government reports, general interest publications, blogs, and audiovisuals. Explores recent internet trends, web-based databases, and software tools in a section on the online environment. Concludes with a miscellany of special topics such as laws and regulations, chemical hazard communication resources, careers and professional education, K-12 resources, funding, poison control centers, and patents. Paired with Volume Two, which focuses on global resources, this set offers the most comprehensive compendium of print, digital, and organizational resources in the toxicological sciences with over 120 chapters contributions by experts and leaders in the field.
An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology

Author: Carey N. Pope

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128136027

Category: Medical

Page: 644

View: 964

An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Toxicology: From Molecules to Man integrates the various aspects of toxicology, from "simple” molecular systems, to complex human communities, with expertise from a spectrum of interacting disciplines. Chapters are written by specialists within a given subject, such as a chemical engineer, nutritional scientist, or a microbiologist, so subjects are clearly explained and discussed within the toxicology context. Many chapters are comparative across species so that students in ecotoxicology learn mammalian toxicology and vice versa. Specific citations, further reading, study questions, and other learning features are also included. The book allows students to concurrently learn concepts in both biomedical and environmental toxicology fields, thus better equipping them for the many career opportunities toxicology provides. This book will also be useful to those wishing to reference how disciplines interact within the broad field of toxicology. Covers major topics and newer areas in toxicology, including nanotoxicology, Tox21, epigenetic toxicology, and organ-specific toxicity Includes a variety of perspectives to give a complete understanding of toxicology Written by specialists within each subject area, e.g., a chemical engineer, to ensure concepts are clearly explained
Prof. of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology

Author: Abdulrahman Al-Majed

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128241288

Category: Medical

Page: 326

View: 427

Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and Related Methodology, Volume 46 contains comprehensive profiles of five drug compounds: Darunavir, Bisoprolol, Betaxolol, Rabeprazole and Irbesartan. In addition, the work contains a chapter reviewing Bioassay Methods and Their Applications in Herbal Drug Research. The comprehensive reviews in the book cover all aspects of drug development and the formulation of drugs, helping readers understand how the drug development community remains essential to all phases of pharmaceutical development. In addition, this work answers why such profiles are of immeasurable importance to workers in the field. The scope of the Profiles series encompasses review articles and database compilations that fall within one or more of the following five broad categories: Physical Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients, Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients, ADME Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients, Methodology Related to the Characterization of Drug Substances and Excipients, and Methods of Chemical Synthesis. Contains contributions from leading authorities Presents an excellent overview on the physical, chemical and biomedical properties of some regularly prescribed drugs Includes a cumulative index in each volume
Big Data in Predictive Toxicology

Author: Andrea-Nicole Richarz

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781839160820

Category: Medical

Page: 394

View: 495

The rate at which toxicological data is generated is continually becoming more rapid and the volume of data generated is growing dramatically. This is due in part to advances in software solutions and cheminformatics approaches which increase the availability of open data from chemical, biological and toxicological and high throughput screening resources. However, the amplified pace and capacity of data generation achieved by these novel techniques presents challenges for organising and analysing data output. Big Data in Predictive Toxicology discusses these challenges as well as the opportunities of new techniques encountered in data science. It addresses the nature of toxicological big data, their storage, analysis and interpretation. It also details how these data can be applied in toxicity prediction, modelling and risk assessment. This title is of particular relevance to researchers and postgraduates working and studying in the fields of computational methods, applied and physical chemistry, cheminformatics, biological sciences, predictive toxicology and safety and hazard assessment.
Computational Nanotoxicology

Author: Agnieszka Gajewicz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000681420

Category: Medical

Page: 287

View: 402

The development of computational methods that support human health and environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials has attracted great interest because the application of these methods enables us to fill existing experimental data gaps. However, considering the high degree of complexity and multifunctionality of engineered nanoparticles, computational methods originally developed for regular (i.e., classic) chemicals cannot always be applied explicitly in nanotoxicology. Thus, the main idea of this book is to discuss the current state of the art and future needs in the development of computational modeling techniques for nanotoxicology. The book focuses on methodology. Among various in silico techniques, special attention is given to (i) computational chemistry (quantum mechanics, semi-empirical methods, density functional theory, molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics); (ii) nanochemoinformatic methods (quantitative structure–activity relationship modeling, grouping, read-across); and (iii) nanobioinformatic methods (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics).
Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science

Author: Jann Hau

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429801594

Category: Medical

Page: 1012

View: 590

Building upon the success of previous editions of the bestselling Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, first published in 1994, this latest revision combines all three volumes in one definitive guide. It covers the essential principles and practices of Laboratory Animal Science as well as selected animal models in scientific disciplines where much progress has been made in recent years. Each individual chapter focuses on an important subdiscipline of laboratory animal science, and the chapters can be read and used as stand-alone texts, with only limited necessity to consult other chapters for information. With new contributors at the forefront of their fields, the book reflects the scientific and technological advances of the past decade. It also responds to advances in our understanding of animal behavior, emphasizing the importance of implementing the three Rs: replacing live animals with alternative methods, reducing the number of animals used, and refining techniques to minimize animal discomfort. This fourth edition will be useful all over the world as a textbook for laboratory animal science courses for postgraduate and undergraduate students and as a handbook for scientists who work with animals in their research, for university veterinarians, and for other specialists in laboratory animal science.
Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetic Considerations - Vol II

Author: Rakesh Kumar Tekade

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780323913164

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 814

View: 979

Pharmacokinetics and Toxicokinetic Considerations explains the central principles, cutting-edge methodologies, and incipient thought processes applied to toxicology research. As part of the Advances in Pharmaceutical Product Development and Research series, the book provides expert literature on dose, dosage regimen and dose adjustment, medication errors, and approaches for its prevention, the concept of pharmacotherapy, and managed care in clinical interventions. It expounds on strategies to revamp the pharmacokinetics of the drug and the factors affecting the stability of drugs and their metabolites in biological matrices. Finally, the book offers focused elaborations on various bioanalytical methods for bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment and integrates the wide-ranging principles and concepts shared by toxicokinetics and pharmacodynamics as mutual crosstalk rather than isolated observations. It will be helpful to researchers and advanced students working in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, biotechnology, food, and related industries including toxicologists, pharmacists, and pharmacologists. Allows readers to systematically integrate up-to-date research findings into their laboratory work Presents focused explorations of bioanalytical methods for bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment Provides clinical applications of concepts
Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Sixth Edition

Author: A. Wallace Hayes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781842145364

Category: Medical

Page: 2186

View: 409

Hayes’ Principles and Methods of Toxicology has long been established as a reliable reference to the concepts, methodologies, and assessments integral to toxicology. The new sixth edition has been revised and updated while maintaining the same high standards that have made this volume a benchmark resource in the field. With new authors and new chapters that address the advances and developments since the fifth edition, the book presents everything toxicologists and students need to know to understand hazards and mechanisms of toxicity, enabling them to better assess risk. The book begins with the four basic principles of toxicology—dose matters, people differ, everything transforms, and timing is crucial. The contributors discuss various agents of toxicity, including foodborne, solvents, crop protection chemicals, radiation, and plant and animal toxins. They examine various methods for defining and measuring toxicity in a host of areas, including genetics, carcinogenicity, toxicity in major body systems, and the environment. This new edition contains an expanded glossary reflecting significant changes in the field. New topics in this edition include: The importance of dose–response Systems toxicology Food safety The humane use and care of animals Neurotoxicology The comprehensive coverage and clear writing style make this volume an invaluable text for students and a one-stop reference for professionals.
Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, Hazards and Safety

Author: Muhammad Bilal Tahir

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128238370

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 302

View: 127

Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, Hazards and Safety explains the fundamental properties of nanomaterials, covering their types and classifications. The book includes methods of preparation and characterization of nanostructured materials. It explains the principles and fundamentals of nanomaterials, with information on both pure and composite-based materials with e nanostructures, outlines the latest developments and advances in nanomaterials, and highlights toxic effects and protection. This book is designed to appeal to a wide readership of academic and industrial researchers, focusing on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, sustainable chemistry, energy conversion and storage, nanotechnology, chemical engineering, environmental protection, optoelectronics, sensors, and surface and interface science. Provides information on major concepts and advances made in the areas of nanomaterials properties and nano safety Identifies the major physiochemical properties of nanomaterials Explores the toxicity of different class of nanomaterials and how they can be used safely