Potential health effects from chemicals that disrupt endocrine function pose an environmental health concern because of their ability to interfere with normal hormone function in human and wildlife populations. The endocrine system regulates biological processes throughout the body and is sensitive to small changes in hormone concentrations. Endocrine-disruptor research has focused primarily on chemicals that affect three hormone pathways that play important roles in reproduction and development - the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways. Some of this research has identified dose-response relationships that have nonmonotonic curves. Nonmonotonic dose-response curves (NMDRs) are of concern because they do not follow the usual assumption made in toxicology that as dose decreases the response also decreases. The existence of NMDRs has been a controversial topic for decades, and there has been considerable debate about their implications for how chemicals are tested and for how risks from such chemicals are assessed. Toxicity tests are designed to identify hazards and to characterize dose-response relationships, so tests are aimed at finding a (high) dose that elicits a response, and dose-response is explored by testing lower doses spaced to identify statistically a no- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect level. The concern for NMDRs is that such studies, as currently designed, might not detect the inflection of the dose-response curve if only a few doses are tested or if the change in inflection occurs below the range of doses tested. Another concern is that some NMDRs are found for biological effects that are not usually evaluated in toxicity tests. If current testing strategies are inadequate to account for NMDRs, changes to risk assessment practices might be necessary. To help address these issues, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a draft State-of-the-Science Evaluation: Nonmonotonic Dose Responses as they Apply to Estrogen, Androgen, and Thyroid Pathways and EPA Testing and Assessment Procedures. EPA asked the National Research Council to conduct an independent review of this evaluation to ensure that it is scientifically sound and of high quality. Review of Environmental Protection Agency's State-of-the-Science Evaluation of Nonmonotonic Dose-Response as they Apply to Endocrine Disrupters evaluates whether EPA's evaluation presents a scientifically sound and high-quality analysis of the literature on NMDRs. This report reviews how well the EPA evaluation described how the assessment was performed, whether consistent methods and criteria were applied in the analysis of different evidence streams, and whether appropriate methods were applied to evaluating the evidence. The report makes recommendations to improve EPA's process and strengthen the evaluation.
Evaluation of scientific research, particularly of research which is supported by government funds, is a matter of growing concern in virtually every nation. It is no longer adequate to expect that the value of investments in research will be judged in long-term historical perspective. Resources are scarce and policy-makers are looking for ways to assure that these resources are used in the most effective way. From the life-or-death evaluations of academic research institutes in the post-communist countries to the Government Performance and Results Act(GPRA) in the United States, research evaluation has become a topic of utmost importance in science policy. Evaluation often has substantial consequences for researchers and research institutions, including restructuring, shifting of priorities, budget reductions, or evenclosures. Therefore it is essential that evaluation is done systematically and objectively, with methodologies that can be understood and trusted by those concerned. This book is based on a NATO Advanced Research Workshop, co-organized by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. It describes a range of the most up-to-date methods of science evaluation and the experience with their implementation in many countries. This book can be of interest to researchers, policy-makers, practitioners of science evaluation and many others interested in science policy.
In this insightful book, Peter Edlund takes a status-based approach to theorizing the development of the European Research Council (ERC). Drawing upon rich empirical material, the author vividly details how the ERC was transformed from a funding organization into an authoritative status intermediary in European science.
The most comprehensive guide ever created for head, face, and neck (HFN) pain, this multi-author book offers the very latest research and therapeutic information on this important and hugely interdisciplinary topic. A unique professional reference, it is also easy to use as a textbook within diverse educational institutions and programs. Content adheres strictly to the latest established guidelines for pain management in the medical and dental professions.
Publisher: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ; [Ottawa : Renouf]
Category: Developing countries
This report is based on selected surveys of research practices used in eight countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States). It is designed as a technical approach to help both scientists and decision makers unfamiliar with these procedures to define the most relevant practices in light of analysis of their advantages and limitations. The major emphasis of the document is on university research. It contains sections on: (1) elements in the organization of research; (2) methods and techniques; (3) administration of evaluation; (4) evaluation of scientific research in universities; (5) evaluation of mission-oriented research; and (6) international programs. A bibliography is included. (TW)
The demands of modeling and computation in engineering are rapidly growing as a multidisciplinary area with connections to engineering, mathematics and computer science. Modeling and Computation in Engineering III contains 45 technical papers from the 3rd International Conference on Modeling and Computation in Engineering (CMCE 2014, 28-29 June 2014, including 2014 Hydraulic Engineering and Environment Workshop, HEEW 2014). The conference serves as a major forum for researchers, engineers and manufacturers to share recent advances, discuss problems, and identify challenges associated with modeling technology, simulation technology and tools, computation methods and their engineering applications. The contributions showcase recent developments in the areas of civil engineering, hydraulic engineering, environmental engineering and systems engineering, and other related fields. The contributions in this book mainly focus on advanced theories and technology related to modeling and computation in civil engineering, hydraulic structures, hydropower and management, coastal reclamation and environmental assessment, flood control, irrigation and drainage, water resources and water treatment, environmental management and sustainability, waste management and environmental protection, pollution and control, geology and geography, mechanics in engineering, numerical software and applications. Although these papers represent only modest advances toward modeling and computation problems in engineering, some of the technologies might be key factors in the success of future engineering advances. It is expected that this book will stimulate new ideas, methods and applications in ongoing engineering advances. Modeling and Computation in Engineering III will be invaluable to academics and professionals in civil engineering, hydraulic engineering and environmental engineering.