The Science of Evaluation

Author: Ray Pawson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781446275504

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 746

Evaluation researchers are tasked with providing the evidence to guide programme building and to assess its outcomes. As such, they labour under the highest expectations - bringing independence and objectivity to policy making. They face huge challenges, given the complexity of modern interventions and the politicised backdrop to all of their investigations. They have responded with a huge portfolio of research techniques and, through their professional associations, have set up schemes to establish standards for evaluative inquiry and to accredit evaluation practitioners. A big question remains. Has this monumental effort produced a progressive, cumulative and authoritative body of knowledge that we might think of as evaluation science? This is the question addressed by Ray Pawson in this sequel to Realistic Evaluation and Evidence-based Policy. In answer, he provides a detailed blueprint for an evaluation science based on realist principles.
Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's State-of-the-Science Evaluation of Nonmonotonic Dose-Response Relationships as they Apply to Endocrine Disruptors

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309297578

Category: Nature

Page: 64

View: 910

Potential health effects from chemicals that disrupt endocrine function pose an environmental health concern because of their ability to interfere with normal hormone function in human and wildlife populations. The endocrine system regulates biological processes throughout the body and is sensitive to small changes in hormone concentrations. Endocrine-disruptor research has focused primarily on chemicals that affect three hormone pathways that play important roles in reproduction and development - the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways. Some of this research has identified dose-response relationships that have nonmonotonic curves. Nonmonotonic dose-response curves (NMDRs) are of concern because they do not follow the usual assumption made in toxicology that as dose decreases the response also decreases. The existence of NMDRs has been a controversial topic for decades, and there has been considerable debate about their implications for how chemicals are tested and for how risks from such chemicals are assessed. Toxicity tests are designed to identify hazards and to characterize dose-response relationships, so tests are aimed at finding a (high) dose that elicits a response, and dose-response is explored by testing lower doses spaced to identify statistically a no- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect level. The concern for NMDRs is that such studies, as currently designed, might not detect the inflection of the dose-response curve if only a few doses are tested or if the change in inflection occurs below the range of doses tested. Another concern is that some NMDRs are found for biological effects that are not usually evaluated in toxicity tests. If current testing strategies are inadequate to account for NMDRs, changes to risk assessment practices might be necessary. To help address these issues, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a draft State-of-the-Science Evaluation: Nonmonotonic Dose Responses as they Apply to Estrogen, Androgen, and Thyroid Pathways and EPA Testing and Assessment Procedures. EPA asked the National Research Council to conduct an independent review of this evaluation to ensure that it is scientifically sound and of high quality. Review of Environmental Protection Agency's State-of-the-Science Evaluation of Nonmonotonic Dose-Response as they Apply to Endocrine Disrupters evaluates whether EPA's evaluation presents a scientifically sound and high-quality analysis of the literature on NMDRs. This report reviews how well the EPA evaluation described how the assessment was performed, whether consistent methods and criteria were applied in the analysis of different evidence streams, and whether appropriate methods were applied to evaluating the evidence. The report makes recommendations to improve EPA's process and strengthen the evaluation.
Science Evaluation and Its Management

Author: Václav Pačes

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9051994389

Category: Political Science

Page: 302

View: 460

Evaluation of scientific research, particularly of research which is supported by government funds, is a matter of growing concern in virtually every nation. It is no longer adequate to expect that the value of investments in research will be judged in long-term historical perspective. Resources are scarce and policy-makers are looking for ways to assure that these resources are used in the most effective way. From the life-or-death evaluations of academic research institutes in the post-communist countries to the Government Performance and Results Act(GPRA) in the United States, research evaluation has become a topic of utmost importance in science policy. Evaluation often has substantial consequences for researchers and research institutions, including restructuring, shifting of priorities, budget reductions, or evenclosures. Therefore it is essential that evaluation is done systematically and objectively, with methodologies that can be understood and trusted by those concerned. This book is based on a NATO Advanced Research Workshop, co-organized by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. It describes a range of the most up-to-date methods of science evaluation and the experience with their implementation in many countries. This book can be of interest to researchers, policy-makers, practitioners of science evaluation and many others interested in science policy.
Realist Evaluation for Crime Science

Author: Graham Farrell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317237143

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 472

This collection of essays, published to mark the 20th anniversary of Realistic Evaluation, celebrates the work of Professor Nick Tilley and his significant influence on the fields of policing, crime reduction and evaluation. With contributions from colleagues, co-authors and former students, many of whom are leading scholars in their own right, the thirteen essays which make up this volume contain both personal reflections and analysis of the prominent topics in Professor Tilley’s forty years of scholarship.


Publisher: K.K. Publications


Category: Education

Page: 608

View: 412

CONTENTS IN BRIEF PREFACE & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii PART - I: INTRODUCTION 19-77 Chapter-1: Philosophy of Testing 21 Chapter-2: Need for Sports Science to Develop Sports Excellence 36 Chapter-3: Measuring Physical Education Component is Lifeline of All Education 52 Chapter-4: History of Test and Measurement 68 PART - II: TEST CONSTRUCTION 78-143 Chapter-5: Test Classification 80 Chapter-6: Criteria of Good Test 88 Chapter-7: Construction of Psychomotor Tests 104 Chapter-8: Construction of Knowledge Tests 116 Chapter-9: Construction of Affective Tests 126 Chapter-10:Test Administration 131 PART - III: PHYSICAL TESTS 144-185 Chapter-11: Anthropometric Tests 145 Chapter-12: Testing Health Markers 164 PART - IV: PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS 186-373 Chapter-13: Introduction to Psychomotor Testing 188 Chapter-14: Muscular Strength & Endurance Testing 198 Chapter-15: Cardio-Pulmonary Endurance 212 Chapter-16: Flexibility Tests 231 Chapter-17: Muscular Power Tests 244 Chapter-18: Agility Tests 252 Chapter-19: Balance and Its Tests 260 Chapter-20: Tests of Speed Reaction Time and Coordination 272 Chapter-21: Physical Activity: Cognition and Testing 284 Chapter-22: Physical and Motor Fitness Testing 298 Chapter-23: General Motor Ability Testing 307 Chapter-24: Team Games Skill Testing 317 Chapter-25: Individual Games Skill Testing 348 PART - V: MEASUREMENTS 374-418 Chapter-26: Measurements of Champions 375 Chapter-27: Measurement of Behaviour Change and Sport for All 385 Chapter-28: Measurement and Sports Talent Selection 397 Chapter-29: Measurement and Sports Excellence 411 PART-VI: STATISTICS, EVALUATION, ACCREDITATION & STANDARDS 419-536 Chapter-30: Introduction to Statistical Tests 421 Chapter-31: Data Distribution and Central Tendency 429 Chapter-32: Variability Testing 446 Chapter-33: Normal Probability Curve 454 Chapter-34: Diagrammatic Representations of Data 458 Chapter-35: Evaluation Fundamentals 478 Chapter-36: Accreditation and Standards 494 Chapter-37: Grading : ASummative Evaluation 514 PART - VII : REFERENCE SECTION 537-608 BIBLIOGRAPHY : 538-552 APPENDIXES : 553 - 584 GLOSSARY : 585-595 INDEX : 596-601 EPILOGUE : 602 EPILOGUE A: Standards for Sports Universities’ Departments (illustrated) : 603 EPILOGUE B: Standards for Sports Universities’ Courses (illustrated) : 604 ABOUT THE AUTHOR : 606 Readers Opinions & Suggestions Form for Improvements in the Next Edition : 607
Evaluation of Science and Technology Education at the Dawn of a New Millennium

Author: James W. Altschuld

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306475603

Category: Education

Page: 279

View: 951

"James Altschuld, David Kumar, and their chapter authors have produced an upbeat, provocative, visionary, and useful volume on educational evaluation. Of special utility is its grounding in issues and practices relating to evaluations of science and technology education. The book should appeal and be useful to a wide range of persons involved in evaluations of educational policy, programs, and (less so) science teachers. These persons include science and technology education experts, educational policymakers, officials of the National Science Foundation, school administrators, classroom teachers, evaluation instructors, evaluation methodologists, practicing evaluators, and test developers, among others. Contents reflecting international studies of curriculum, evaluation of distance education, and evaluation of technology utilization in Australian schools, as well as evaluations in America should make the book appealing to an international audience. Moreover, it provides a global perspective for assessing and strengthening educational evaluation in the US." Daniel L. Stufflebeam, Professor of Education and Director of the Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University For contents, contributors and a free preview:
Science Evaluation and Status Creation

Author: Peter Edlund

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781839106095

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 148

In this insightful book, Peter Edlund takes a status-based approach to theorizing the development of the European Research Council (ERC). Drawing upon rich empirical material, the author vividly details how the ERC was transformed from a funding organization into an authoritative status intermediary in European science.
Modeling and Computation in Engineering III

Author: Lei Zhang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781138026803

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 185

The demands of modeling and computation in engineering are rapidly growing as a multidisciplinary area with connections to engineering, mathematics and computer science. Modeling and Computation in Engineering III contains 45 technical papers from the 3rd International Conference on Modeling and Computation in Engineering (CMCE 2014, 28-29 June 2014, including 2014 Hydraulic Engineering and Environment Workshop, HEEW 2014). The conference serves as a major forum for researchers, engineers and manufacturers to share recent advances, discuss problems, and identify challenges associated with modeling technology, simulation technology and tools, computation methods and their engineering applications. The contributions showcase recent developments in the areas of civil engineering, hydraulic engineering, environmental engineering and systems engineering, and other related fields. The contributions in this book mainly focus on advanced theories and technology related to modeling and computation in civil engineering, hydraulic structures, hydropower and management, coastal reclamation and environmental assessment, flood control, irrigation and drainage, water resources and water treatment, environmental management and sustainability, waste management and environmental protection, pollution and control, geology and geography, mechanics in engineering, numerical software and applications. Although these papers represent only modest advances toward modeling and computation problems in engineering, some of the technologies might be key factors in the success of future engineering advances. It is expected that this book will stimulate new ideas, methods and applications in ongoing engineering advances. Modeling and Computation in Engineering III will be invaluable to academics and professionals in civil engineering, hydraulic engineering and environmental engineering.