The Syntax of the Albanian Verb Complex

Author: Philip L. Hubbard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315462790

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 200

View: 508

This work, first published in 1985, is an analysis of the syntax of the Albanian verb complex. The term "verb complex" is defined here as the verb stem and its conjugational endings, together with the perfect auxiliaries and verb clitics. In a wider sense the verb includes the verb and its central arguments: subject, direct object, and indirect object. The analysis is presented in a somewhat expanded version of the relational grammar framework of Perlmutter and Postal (1977). It is argued that by assuming the existence of multiple levels in the syntactic structure of a clause, it is possible to account for the distribution of active and non-active verb forms over the various constructions of Albanian with a single generalisation. This title will be of interest to students of language and linguistics.
The Languages and Linguistics of Europe

Author: Bernd Kortmann

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110220261

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 929

View: 228

Open publicationThe Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide is part of the multi-volume reference work on the languages and linguistics of the continents of the world. The book supplies profiles of the language families of Europe, including the sign languages. It also discusses the areal typology, paying attention to the Standard Average European, Balkan, Baltic and Mediterranean convergence areas. Separate chapters deal with the old and new minority languages and with non-standard varieties. A major focus is language politics and policies, including discussions of the special status of English, the relation between language and the church, language and the school, and standardization. The history of European linguistics is another focus as is the history of multilingual European 'empires' and their dissolution. The volume is especially geared towards a graduate and advanced undergraduate readership. It has been designed such that it can be used, as a whole or in parts, as a textbook, the first of its kind, for graduate programmes with a focus on the linguistic (and linguistics) landscape of Europe.
The Nature of Syntactic Representation

Author: Pauline Jacobson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400977075

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 481

View: 740

The work collected in this book represents the results of some intensive recent work on the syntax of natural languages. The authors' differing viewpoints have in common the program of revising current conceptions of syntactic representation so that the role of transformational derivations is reduced or eliminated. The fact that the papers cross-refer to each other a good deal, and that authors assuming quite different fram{:works are aware of each other's results and address themselves to shared problems, is partly the result of a conference on the nature of syntactic representation that was held at Brown University in May 1979 with the express purpose of bringing together different lines of research in syntax. The papers in this volume mostly arise out of work that was presented in preliminary form at that conference, though much rewriting and further research has been done in the interim period. Two papers are included because although they were not given even in preliminary form at the conference, it has become clear since then that they interrelate with the work of the conference so much that they cannot reasonably be left out: Gerald Gazdar's statement of his program for phrase structure description of natural language forms the theoretical basis that is assumed by Maling and Zaenen and by Sag, and David Dowty's paper represents a bridge between the relational grammar exemplified here in the papers by Perlmutter and Postal on the one hand and the Montague
Datives and Other Cases

Author: Daniel P. Hole

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027230850

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 385

View: 253

This volume provides a state-of-the-art account of research into datives and other morphological cases. The contributors, among them leading scholars in the field, present fresh insights into traditional issues such as the dichotomy between lexical and structural case, and open up fascinating new areas of research. A recurrent feature of the majority of contributions is their combined syntax-semantics perspective. Germanic varieties, Serbian, Albanian and other Balkan languages alongside Chinese, Japanese, Tagalog are discussed from various theoretical angles such as mainstream generativism, lexical-functional grammar, and functional typology. Despite the broad range of facts spanning the distance between acquisition data and dialectology, the papers are connected by a renewed interest in form-function correspondencies. This volume will be welcomed by theoretical linguists and typologists with an interest in argument and event structure, linguists studying the case systems of individual languages and researchers in search for up-to-date discussion of Germanic datives.
Clitics

Author: Joel A. Nevis

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027276650

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 274

View: 699

This bibliography provides an alphabetical listing of over 1500 articles, books, and dissertations that treat in some way the topic of clitics and related matters, e.g. affixes, words, word order, movement, sandhi, etc. The beginning point for the bibliographic entries is 1892, taking Jacob Wackernagel's classic work as the point of departure, and the entries cover the subsequent 100-year period. Each entury is accompanied by a series of descriptors which give an indication of the content of the item. Nearly one-third of the book is a detailed analytic index, based on the descriptors, which can aid in topical searches for relevant material. Prefatory matter includes an essay “What is a Clitic?” by Arnold M. Zwicky, a brief consideration of Wackernagel's scholarly career by Brian D. Joseph, and information on the format and use of the book itself.
Encyclopedia of Linguistics

Author: Philipp Strazny

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781135455231

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1304

View: 178

Utilizing a historical and international approach, this valuable two-volume resource makes even the more complex linguistic issues understandable for the non-specialized reader. Containing over 500 alphabetically arranged entries and an expansive glossary by a team of international scholars, the Encyclopedia of Linguistics explores the varied perspectives, figures, and methodologies that make up the field.
Studies of Passive Clauses

Author: Paul Martin Postal

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0887060838

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 271

View: 370

In this work, Paul M. Postal supports the universalist theory of language by examining passive clauses. Contrary to a skeptical tradition, Postal argues that passive clauses are cross-linguistically identifiable and characterizable. This study proposes refinements of the analysis of the natural language grammatical category Passive Clause. These refinements include an account of the notion 'dummy nominal,' central to the analysis of impersonal passive clauses; additions permitting a proper typology of the major known subtypes of Passive Clause; a generalization permitting application to clauses whose subjects are not earlier level direct objects; and, construction of precise rule concepts to represent restrictions on passive clauses. The passive domain supports the universalist approach in three distinguishable ways: (1) by permitting formulation of otherwise apparently unstatable lawful characteristics of all passive structures; (2) by facilitating statement of language-specific passive constraints holding in diverse languages; and, (3) by allowing uniform statement in grammars of recurrent constraints on passives. Each mode of support is applied to actual cases based on material from more than a dozen languages from English and French to Quiche (Mayan) and Chi-Mwi:ni (Bantu).
Balkan Syntax and Semantics

Author: Olga Mišeska Tomi?

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 902722790X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 496

View: 636

The book deals with some syntactic and semantic aspects of the shared Balkan Sprachbund properties. In a comprehensive introductory chapter, Tomic offers an overview of the Balkan Sprachbund properties. Sobolev, displaying the areal distribution of 65 properties, argues for dialect cartography. Friedman, on the example of the evidentials, argues for typologically informed areal explanation of the Balkan properties. The other contributions analyze specific phenomena: polidefinite DPs in Greek and Aromanian (Campos and Stavrou), Balkan constructions in which datives combine with impersonal clitics or non-active morphology (Rivero), Balkan optatives (Ammann and Auwera), imperative force in the Balkan languages (Isac and Jakab), clitic placement in Greek imperatives (Boškovic), focused constituents in Romanian and Bulgarian (Hill), synthetic and analytic tenses in Romanian (D'Hulst, Coene and Avram), "purpose-like" modification in a number of Balkan languages (Bužarovska), Balkan modal existential “wh”-constructions (Grosu), child and adult strategies in interpreting empty subjects in Serbian/Croatian (Stojanovic and Marelj), conditional sentences in Judeo-Spanish (Montoliu and Auwera).
Masked Inversion in French

Author: Paul M. Postal

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226675696

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 156

View: 969

In this important work of linguistic analysis, Paul M. Postal addresses a paradigm anomaly in French that has hitherto resisted explanation. A general restriction limiting the form of direct objects in complex infinitival constructions with main verbs like faire fails to hold with certain subordinate verbs, especially connaître. Marshaling extensive evidence, Postal argues that this apparent irregularity is a symptom of a deeper regularity. Rather than being an ordinary transitive complement, the subordinate clause in these cases is actually an Inversion structure, one in which the logical subject demotes to indirect object. However, since this demotion induces no word order change or other direct morphological consequences, the inversion is "masked," and revealed only by several types of apparent anomalies. This analysis has significant consequences for contemporary syntactic theories. First, the arguments support the view that a sentence's superficial structure cannot be identified with its syntactic structure, even though such an identification is a fundamental assumption of several currently influential grammatical frameworks. Second, even certain theories that do posit abstract aspects of grammatical form fail to allow for the needed Inversion structures. Postal's study supports theories based on the notion of arc and stratification into levels which provide a natural treatment consistent with the factual requirements. Masked Inversion in French is the first systematic account of this puzzling French syntactic anomaly, and its findings will stimulate research in many areas of natural language grammatical structure.