Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi-System Health Impacts from Exposure

Author: Aristidis M. Tsatsakis

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323853583

Category: Medical

Page: 684

View: 300

Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multisystem Health Impacts From Exposure highlights the emerging problems of human and environmental health attributable to cumulative and multiple sources of long-term exposure to environmental toxicants. The book describes the cellular, biological, immunological, endocrinologic, genetic, and epigenetic effects of long-term exposure. It examines how the combined exposure to nanomaterials, metals, pharmaceuticals, multifrequency radiation, dietary mycotoxins, and pesticides accelerates ecotoxicity in humans, animals, plants, and the larger environment. The book goes on to also offer insights into mixture risk assessments, protocols for evaluating the risks, and how this information can serve the regulatory agencies in setting safer exposure limits. The book is a go-to resource for scientists and professionals in the field tackling the current and emerging trends in modern toxicology and risk assessment. • Bridges basic research with clinical, epidemiological, regulatory, and translational research, conveying both an introductory understanding and the latest developments in the field • Evaluates real-life human health risk assessment for long-term exposures to xenobiotic mixtures and the role they play in contributing to chronic disease • Discusses advances in predictive (in silico) toxicology tools and the benefits of using omics technologies in toxicology research
Cosmetic Formulation

Author: Heather A.E. Benson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482235401

Category: Medical

Page: 479

View: 206

Cosmetics are the most widely applied products to the skin and include creams, lotions, gels and sprays. Their formulation, design and manufacturing ranges from large cosmetic houses to small private companies. This book covers the current science in the formulations of cosmetics applied to the skin. It includes basic formulation, skin science, advanced formulation, and cosmetic product development, including both descriptive and mechanistic content with an emphasis on practical aspects. Key Features: Covers cosmetic products/formulation from theory to practice Includes case studies to illustrate real-life formulation development and problem solving Offers a practical, user-friendly approach, relying on the work of recognized experts in the field Provides insights into the future directions in cosmetic product development Presents basic formulation, skin science, advanced formulation and cosmetic product development
Molecular and Cellular Toxicology

Author: Lesley Stanley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118526019

Category: Medical

Page: 440

View: 148

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people, animals, and the environment. Toxicologists are trained to investigate, interpret, and communicate the nature of those effects. Over the last ten years the subject of toxicology has changed dramatically, moving from a discipline which was once firmly wedded to traditional methods to one which is keen to embrace the innovative techniques emerging from the developing fields of cell culture and molecular biology. There is an acute need for this to be reflected in a paradigm shift which takes advantage of the opportunities offered by modern developments in the life sciences, including new in vitro and in silico approaches, alternative whole organism (non-mammalian) models and the exploitation of ‘omics methods, high throughput screening (HTS) techniques and molecular imaging technologies. This concise, accessible introduction to the field includes the very latest concepts and methodologies. It provides MSc, PhD and final year undergraduate students in pharmacy, biomedical and life sciences, as well as individuals starting out in the cosmetics, consumer products, pharmaceutical and testing industries, with everything they need to know to get to grips with the fast moving field of toxicology and the current approaches used in the risk assessment of drugs and chemicals.
Environmental Determinants of Human Health

Author: Jozef M. Pacyna

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319431420

Category: Medical

Page: 270

View: 398

Polluted air and contaminated food and water are major causes of human health deterioration, but public health policy has long struggled to effectively address these concerns. This timely book--written for a wide audience of policy makers, researchers, and general readers--synthesizes what we already know about environmental hazards, identifies the gaps in our knowledge, and provides a roadmap for reducing human exposure to environmental pollution. With contributions from leading experts, Environmental Determinants of Human Health examines numerous pollutants, both inorganic and organic, in the context of their human health impacts. Individual chapters explore exposure pathways, macroeconomic impacts of human health deterioration, technological and non-technological methods for reducing exposures, monetary and non-monetary benefits from exposure reduction, and risk communication and awareness, including citizen participation approaches. This volume is a crucial text for policy makers requiring scientific justification for the development of new environmental regulations, scientists researching public health and environmental contamination, and members of the public interested in human health issues.
Biomarkers in Toxicology

Author: Ramesh C. Gupta

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128146569

Category: Medical

Page: 1246

View: 548

Biomarkers in Toxicology, Second Edition, is a timely and comprehensive reference dedicated to all aspects of biomarkers that relate to chemical exposure and their effects on biological systems. This revised and completely updated edition includes both vertebrate and non-vertebrate species models for toxicological testing and the development of biomarkers. Divided into several key sections, this reference volume contains new chapters devoted to topics in microplastics, neuroimmunotoxicity and nutraceuticals, along with a look at the latest cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers. Each chapter contains several references to current literature and important resources for further reading. Given this comprehensive treatment, this book is an essential reference for anyone interested in biomarkers across the scientific and biomedical fields. Evaluates the expansive literature, providing one resource covering all aspects of toxicology biomarkers Includes completely revised chapters, along with additional chapters on the newest developments in the field Identifies and discusses the most sensitive, accurate, unique and validated biomarkers used as indicators of exposure Covers special topics and applications of biomarkers, including chapters on molecular toxicology biomarkers, biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology, development of biomarkers for drug efficacy evaluation, and much more
Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology

Author: André O. Barel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781842145654

Category: Medical

Page: 698

View: 576

Written by experienced and internationally renowned contributors, this is the fourth edition of what has become the standard reference for cosmetic scientists and dermatologists seeking the latest innovations and technology for the formulation, design, testing, use, and production of cosmetic products for skin, hair, and nails. New to this fourth e
Reducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing

Author: Dave Allen

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781849737920

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 743

Toxicity testing is used to assess the safety or hazards presented by substances such as industrial chemicals, consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. At present, many methods involve laboratory animals. Alternative procedures, some involving human cell-based technologies, are now being developed which reduce, refine, or replace animal usage and minimize the pain and distress caused. These new tests must protect public health and the environment at least as well as currently accepted methods. This book describes the ever-expanding "toolbox" of methods available to assess toxicity. Such techniques often result from our growing understanding of the biochemical and cellular pathways that mediate toxicity mechanisms. This permits evaluations of information generated from several sources to generate a "weight of evidence". By combining in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo methods with technologies that rely on biochemical- and cell-based in vitro assays, toxicologists are developing mechanistically based alternatives to live animal experimentation. This text also explores the complexities associated with adequate validation, and the assessment of test reliability and relevance. It provides an essential reference source for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in this rapidly changing area.
Computational Toxicology

Author: Bruce A. Fowler

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123965080

Category: Computers

Page: 274

View: 273

Computational Toxicology: Methods and Applications for Risk Assessment is an essential reference on the translation of computational toxicology data into information that can be used for more informed risk assessment decision-making. This book is authored by leading international investigators who have real-world experience in relating computational toxicology methods to risk assessment. Key topics of interest include QSAR modeling, chemical mixtures, applications to metabolomic and metabonomic data sets, toxicogenomic analyses, applications to REACH informational strategies and much more. The examples provided in this book are based on cutting-edge technologies and set out to stimulate the further development of this promising field to offer rapid, better and more cost-effective answers to major public health concerns. Authored by leading international researchers engaged in cutting-edge applications of computational methods for translating complex toxicological data sets into useful risk assessment information Incorporates real-world examples of how computational toxicological methods have been applied to advance the science of risk assessment Provides the framework necessary for new technologies and fosters common vocabularies and principles upon which the effects of new chemical entities should be compared
Computational Toxicology

Author: William Mendez

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128060537

Category: Medical

Page: 274

View: 581

The focus of the chapter is on the development and application of computational toxicology methods to human risk assessment. The various CompTox methods are defined, and a brief history of their development and applications in risk assessment is provided. The technological, economic, and public health concerns driving the development of the methods are described, along with how the specific forces shaped the historical and current use of CompTox methods in risk assessment. Translation research programs in the United States and OECD are briefly reviewed, and current applications of CompTox to risk assessment in the areas of screening, priority setting for testing and regulation, and the elucidation of adverse outcome pathways are discussed. Potential future directions for the application of computational toxicology in a wider range of risk applications are identified, along with ongoing research needs.
Big Data in Predictive Toxicology

Author: Andrea-Nicole Richarz

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781839160820

Category: Medical

Page: 394

View: 147

The rate at which toxicological data is generated is continually becoming more rapid and the volume of data generated is growing dramatically. This is due in part to advances in software solutions and cheminformatics approaches which increase the availability of open data from chemical, biological and toxicological and high throughput screening resources. However, the amplified pace and capacity of data generation achieved by these novel techniques presents challenges for organising and analysing data output. Big Data in Predictive Toxicology discusses these challenges as well as the opportunities of new techniques encountered in data science. It addresses the nature of toxicological big data, their storage, analysis and interpretation. It also details how these data can be applied in toxicity prediction, modelling and risk assessment. This title is of particular relevance to researchers and postgraduates working and studying in the fields of computational methods, applied and physical chemistry, cheminformatics, biological sciences, predictive toxicology and safety and hazard assessment.
Chemical Toxicity Prediction

Author: Mark Cronin

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781849734400

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 457

The aim of this book is to provide the scientific background to using the formation of chemical categories, or groups, of molecules to allow for read-across i.e. the prediction of toxicity from chemical structure. It covers the scientific basis for this approach to toxicity prediction including the methods to group compounds (structural analogues and / or similarity, mechanism of action) and the tools to achieve this. The approaches to perform read-across within a chemical category are also described. Chemical Toxicity Prediction provides concise practical guidance for those wishing to apply these methods (in risk / hazard assessment) and will be illustrated with case studies. This is the first book that addresses the concept of category formation and read-across for toxicity prediction specifically. This topic has really taken off in the past few years due to concerns over dealing with the REACH legislation and also due to the availability of the OECD (Q)SAR Toolbox. Much (lengthy and complex) guidance is available on category formation e.g. from the OECD and, to a lesser extent, the European Chemicals Agency but there is no one single source of information that covers all techniques in a concise user-friendly format.
Alternatives To Animal Testing

Author: R E Hester

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781847552457

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 700

Animal experimentation has long been a controversial issue with impassioned arguments on both sides of the debate. Increasingly it has become more expedient and feasible to develop new methods that avoid the use of animals. There is agreement on both sides that reduction and refinement of experiments on animals should be an important goal for the industries involved. Alternatives to Animal Testing, written by leading experts in the field, discusses the issues involved and approaches that can be taken. Topics include; the safety evaluation of chemicals, international validation and barriers to the validation of alternative tests, in vitro testing for endocrine disruptors, intelligent approaches to safety evaluation of chemicals, alternative tests and the regulatory framework. The book provides an up-to-date discussion of the current state of development of alternatives to animal testing and is ideal for professionals and academics in the field. It would also be of use for graduate students wishing to pursue a career in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.