Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309453486

Category: Nature

Page: 201

View: 362

Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures between test systems and humans. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations makes recommendations for integrating new scientific approaches into risk-based evaluations. This study considers the scientific advances that have occurred following the publication of the NRC reports Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy and Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Given the various ongoing lines of investigation and new data streams that have emerged, this publication proposes how best to integrate and use the emerging results in evaluating chemical risk. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations considers whether a new paradigm is needed for data validation, how to integrate the divergent data streams, how uncertainty might need to be characterized, and how best to communicate the new approaches so that they are understandable to various stakeholders.
Risk Assessment for Environmental Health

Author: Mark G. Robson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000816099

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 512

Understanding risk to humans is one of the most important problems in environmental public health. Risk assessment is constantly changing with the advent of new exposure assessment tools, more sophisticated models, and a better understanding of disease processes. Risk assessment is also gaining greater acceptance in the developing world where major environmental problems exist. Developed in partnership with the Association of Schools of Public Health, this comprehensive text offers a thorough survey of risk assessment, management, and communications as these practices apply to public health. Key Features: Provides a practical overview of environmental risk assessment and its application by discussing the process and providing case studies and examples Focuses on tools and approaches used for humans in an environment involving potential chemical hazards Fully updated, the first part introduces the underlying principles and techniques of the field, and the second examines case studies in terms of different risk assessment scenarios Risk assessment is a core requirement for the MPH degree in environmental health Useful “stories” suitable for case studies
Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 9th Edition

Author: Curtis D. Klaassen

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9781259863752

Category: Medical

Page: 1639

View: 905

Toxicology’s gold-standard text - completely updated to reflect the latest breakthroughs and discoveries A Doody’s Core Title for 2021! Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Ninth Edition equips you with an unsurpassed understanding of modern toxicology, including the key principles, concepts, mechanisms, chemical-specific toxicity, and modes of thought that are the foundation of the discipline. This trusted classic not only delivers a comprehensive review of the essential components of toxicology, it offers the most up-to-date, revealing, and in-depth look at the systemic responses of toxic substance available anywhere. Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Ninth Edition is logically divided into seven sections: General Principles of Toxicology Disposition of Toxicants Non-Organ Directed Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Toxic Agents Environmental Toxicology Applications of Toxicology Many new contributors capture the progress made in toxicology over the past few years: This edition is markedly updated from the previous edition, with more than one-third of the chapters authored by scientists who have not made previous contributions to the book. Sharing their expertise, they deliver dynamic new coverage of the importance of apoptosis, autophagy, cytokines, growth factors, oncogenes, cell cycling, receptors, gene regulation, protective mechanisms, repair mechanisms, transcription factors, signaling pathways, transgenic mice, knock-out mice, humanized mice, polymorphisms, microarray technology, second-generation sequencing, genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, exposome, microbiota, read across, adverse outcome pathways, high-content screening, computational toxicology, innovative test methods, and organ-on-a-chip in understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and the regulation of chemicals. A true “essential” If you are in need of an up-to-date, all-in-one overview of the biomedical and environmental aspects of toxicology - written by experts, and presented in full color, your search ends here.
Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309151733

Category: Nature

Page: 217

View: 887

Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.
Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine: Sixteenth Edition

Author: Matthew L. Boulton

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9781259644528

Category: Medical

Page: 2320

View: 402

Now in full color, the #1 text spanning the fields of public health and preventive medicine brings you fully up to date on the issues and topics you need to know Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine has been updated and revised for the first time in more than a decade. This highly anticipated and extensive edition provides the most current information and insights available on evidence-based public health and preventive medicine, from basic methodologies of public health to principles of epidemiology and infection control to environmental toxicology to global health. The most comprehensive resource of its kind, Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine is the clear choice for anyone seeking a career in public health. Features: • Edited and written by a who's who of global experts • 384 photos and illustrations • New full-color format and improved artwork • Significantly expanded coverage of diseases and preventive methods common in international markets • Greater use of tables and summary lists for easier reading and retention
Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: Ted Simon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000754377

Category: Medical

Page: 302

View: 916

The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. Indeed, the problems humankind faces in the 21st century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as health and safety regulations grow and become more complicated. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach, 2nd Edition looks at various factors relating to exposure and toxicity, human health, and risk. In addition to the original chapters being updated and expanded upon, four new chapters discuss current software and platforms that have recently been developed and provide examples of risk characterizations and scenarios. Features: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Considers how bias and conflict of interest affect science-based decisions in the 21st century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and suggestions for additional reading Discusses new software and computational platforms that have developed since the first edition Aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments, the book delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk.
Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology, Fourth Edition

Author: Curtis D. Klaassen

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9781260452303

Category: Medical

Page: 640

View: 99

Develop a strong foundation in the concepts and principles of toxicology with this concise and accessible resource For more than 25 years, Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basics of Poison has set the standard for providing thorough, academic, and authoritative information in clear and engaging ways. Distilling the major principles and concepts from that renowned text, Casarett & Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology delivers an accessible and highly readable introduction to the science and clinical field of medical toxicology. The book reflects the expertise of more than 60 renowned contributors. Presented in full-color, this new edition builds on the wide success of previous editions, with extensive updates that make the book more clinically relevant to students and beginners in toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy, and environmental sciences. Chapter-ending self-assessment Q&As and other features make the learning process more effective and efficient. Casarett and Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology is organized into seven units: General Principles of Toxicology Disposition of Toxicants Non-organ-directed Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Toxic Agents Environmental Toxicology Applications of Toxicology Succinct, yet comprehensive, the text covers essential principles, toxicokinetics, how toxic effects are passed on to succeeding generations, how each body system responds to poisons, and the specific effects of a wide range of toxic agents—from pesticides to radiation.
Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309103800

Category: Science

Page: 126

View: 935

Biological threats like SARS and natural disasters like the tsunami in Indonesia have devastated entire regions, and quickly exhausted budgetary resources. As the field of environmental health continues to evolve, scientists and others must focus on gaining a better understanding of the links between human health and various environmental factors, and on creating new paradigms and partnerships needed to address these complex environmental health challenges facing society. Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulations to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary discusses the role of industry in environmental health, examines programs designed to improve the overall state of environmental health, and explores how governmental and corporate entities can collaborate to manage this industry. Stakeholders in both the public and private sectors are looking for viable solutions as the complexity of societal problems and risks associated with management and varying regulatory standards continue to increase. Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century draws critical links and provides insight into the current shape of global environmental health. The book recommends expanding environmental management systems (EMS) to encompass a more extensive global network. It also provides a complete assessment of the benefits and costs resulting from implementation of various environmental management systems.
Emerging Systemic Risks in the 21st Century

Author: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: STANFORD:36105112775395

Category: Architecture

Page: 304

View: 489

Recent years have witnessed a variety of large-scale disasters throughout the world relating to natural disasters, technological accidents, infectious diseases, food safety issues and terrorist attacks. This book examines the underlying forces driving changes in these key risk areas and explores the social and economic implications of these developments on major systems relating to provision of health services, transport, energy, food and water supplies, information and telecommunications. It identifies the challenges facing OECD countries, especially at an international level, in assessing, preparing for and responding to conventional and newly emerging hazards. It also sets out a number of recommendations for governments and the private sector as to how the management of emerging systemic risks might be improved.
Environmental Hazards Methodologies for Risk Assessment and Management

Author: Nicolas R. Dalezios

Publisher: IWA Publishing

ISBN: 9781780407128

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 516

From the beginning of 21st century, there has been an awareness of risk in the environment along with a growing concern for the continuing potential damage caused by hazards. In order to ensure environmental sustainability, a better understanding of natural disasters and their impacts is essential. It has been recognized that a holistic and integrated approach to environmental hazards needs to be attempted using common methodologies, such as risk analysis, which involves risk management and risk assessment. Indeed, risk management means reducing the threats posed by known hazards, whereas at the same time accepting unmanageable risks and maximizing any related benefits. The risk management framework involves evaluating the importance of a risk, either quantitatively or qualitatively. Risk assessment comprises three steps, namely risk identification (data base, event monitoring, statistical inference), risk estimation (magnitude, frequency, economic costs) and risk evaluation (cost-benefit analysis). Nevertheless, the risk management framework also includes a fourth step, risk governance, i.e. the need for a feedback of all the risk assessment undertakings. There is currently a lack of such feedback which constitutes a serious deficiency in the reduction of environmental hazards. This book emphasises methodological approaches and procedures of the three main components in the study of environmental hazards, namely forecasting - nowcasting (before), monitoring (during) and assessment (after), based on geoinformatic technologies and data and simulation through examples and case studies. These are considered within the risk management framework and, in particular, within the three components of risk assessment, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This approach is a contemporary and innovative procedure and constitutes current research in the field of environmental hazards. Environmental Hazards Methodologies for Risk Assessment and Management covers hydrological hazards (floods, droughts, storms, hail, desertification), biophysical hazards (frost, heat waves, epidemics, forest fires), geological hazards (landslides, snow avalanches), tectonic hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes), and technological hazards. This book provides a text and a resource on environmental hazards for senior undergraduate students, graduate students on all courses related to environmental hazards and risk assessment and management. It is a valuable handbook for researchers and professionals of environmental science, environmental economics and management, and engineering. Editor: Nicolas R. Dalezios, University of Thessaly, Greece