Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309453516

Category: Nature

Page: 200

View: 291

Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures between test systems and humans. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations makes recommendations for integrating new scientific approaches into risk-based evaluations. This study considers the scientific advances that have occurred following the publication of the NRC reports Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy and Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Given the various ongoing lines of investigation and new data streams that have emerged, this publication proposes how best to integrate and use the emerging results in evaluating chemical risk. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations considers whether a new paradigm is needed for data validation, how to integrate the divergent data streams, how uncertainty might need to be characterized, and how best to communicate the new approaches so that they are understandable to various stakeholders.
Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309453486

Category: Nature

Page: 200

View: 229

Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures between test systems and humans. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations makes recommendations for integrating new scientific approaches into risk-based evaluations. This study considers the scientific advances that have occurred following the publication of the NRC reports Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy and Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Given the various ongoing lines of investigation and new data streams that have emerged, this publication proposes how best to integrate and use the emerging results in evaluating chemical risk. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations considers whether a new paradigm is needed for data validation, how to integrate the divergent data streams, how uncertainty might need to be characterized, and how best to communicate the new approaches so that they are understandable to various stakeholders.
Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Ninth Edition

Author: Curtis D. Klaassen

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9781259863752

Category: Medical

Page: 1696

View: 184

Toxicology’s gold-standard text - completely updated to reflect the latest breakthroughs and discoveries Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Ninth Edition equips you with an unsurpassed understanding of modern toxicology, including the key principles, concepts, mechanisms, chemical-specific toxicity, and modes of thought that are the foundation of the discipline. This trusted classic not only delivers a comprehensive review of the essential components of toxicology, it offers the most up-to-date, revealing, and in-depth look at the systemic responses of toxic substance available anywhere. Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Ninth Edition is logically divided into seven sections:•General Principles of Toxicology•Disposition of Toxicants•Non-Organ Directed Toxicity•Target Organ Toxicity•Toxic Agents•Environmental Toxicology•Applications of Toxicology Many new contributors capture the progress made in toxicology over the past few years:This edition is markedly updated from the previous edition, with more than one-third of the chapters authored by scientists who have not made previous contributions to the book. Sharing their expertise, they deliver dynamic new coverage of the importance of apoptosis, autophagy, cytokines, growth factors, oncogenes, cell cycling, receptors, gene regulation, protective mechanisms, repair mechanisms, transcription factors, signaling pathways, transgenic mice, knock-out mice, humanized mice, polymorphisms, microarray technology, second-generation sequencing, genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, exposome, microbiota, read across, adverse outcome pathways, high-content screening, computational toxicology, innovative test methods, and organ-on-a-chip in understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and the regulation of chemicals. A true “essential”If you are in need of an up-to-date, all-in-one overview of the biomedical and environmental aspects of toxicology - written by experts, and presented in full color, your search ends here.
Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309109925

Category: Nature

Page: 216

View: 412

Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.
Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine: Sixteenth Edition

Author: Matthew L. Boulton

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9781259644528

Category: Medical

Page: 2320

View: 802

Now in full color, the #1 text spanning the fields of public health and preventive medicine brings you fully up to date on the issues and topics you need to know Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine has been updated and revised for the first time in more than a decade. This highly anticipated and extensive edition provides the most current information and insights available on evidence-based public health and preventive medicine, from basic methodologies of public health to principles of epidemiology and infection control to environmental toxicology to global health. The most comprehensive resource of its kind, Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine is the clear choice for anyone seeking a career in public health. Features: • Edited and written by a who's who of global experts • 384 photos and illustrations • New full-color format and improved artwork • Significantly expanded coverage of diseases and preventive methods common in international markets • Greater use of tables and summary lists for easier reading and retention
Environmental Risk Assessment

Author: Ted Simon

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000754377

Category: Medical

Page: 494

View: 898

The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. Indeed, the problems humankind faces in the 21st century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as health and safety regulations grow and become more complicated. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach, 2nd Edition looks at various factors relating to exposure and toxicity, human health, and risk. In addition to the original chapters being updated and expanded upon, four new chapters discuss current software and platforms that have recently been developed and provide examples of risk characterizations and scenarios. Features: Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Considers how bias and conflict of interest affect science-based decisions in the 21st century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and suggestions for additional reading Discusses new software and computational platforms that have developed since the first edition Aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments, the book delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk.
Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology, Fourth Edition

Author: Curtis D. Klaassen

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 9781260452303

Category: Medical

Page: 640

View: 925

Develop a strong foundation in the concepts and principles of toxicology with this concise and accessible resource For more than 25 years, Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basics of Poison has set the standard for providing thorough, academic, and authoritative information in clear and engaging ways. Distilling the major principles and concepts from that renowned text, Casarett & Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology delivers an accessible and highly readable introduction to the science and clinical field of medical toxicology. The book reflects the expertise of more than 60 renowned contributors. Presented in full-color, this new edition builds on the wide success of previous editions, with extensive updates that make the book more clinically relevant to students and beginners in toxicology, pharmacology, pharmacy, and environmental sciences. Chapter-ending self-assessment Q&As and other features make the learning process more effective and efficient. Casarett and Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology is organized into seven units: General Principles of Toxicology Disposition of Toxicants Non-organ-directed Toxicity Target Organ Toxicity Toxic Agents Environmental Toxicology Applications of Toxicology Succinct, yet comprehensive, the text covers essential principles, toxicokinetics, how toxic effects are passed on to succeeding generations, how each body system responds to poisons, and the specific effects of a wide range of toxic agents—from pesticides to radiation.
Exposure Science in the 21st Century

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309264686

Category: Nature

Page: 210

View: 317

From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.
Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309476522

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 124

View: 263

Environmental engineers support the well-being of people and the planet in areas where the two intersect. Over the decades the field has improved countless lives through innovative systems for delivering water, treating waste, and preventing and remediating pollution in air, water, and soil. These achievements are a testament to the multidisciplinary, pragmatic, systems-oriented approach that characterizes environmental engineering. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges outlines the crucial role for environmental engineers in this period of dramatic growth and change. The report identifies five pressing challenges of the 21st century that environmental engineers are uniquely poised to help advance: sustainably supply food, water, and energy; curb climate change and adapt to its impacts; design a future without pollution and waste; create efficient, healthy, resilient cities; and foster informed decisions and actions.
Risk reduction

Author: Mervyn Richardson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203482919

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 206

Concerned with the need to reduce chemical risks, this text also covers related biological and physical risks. Risk reduction has an important economic role, not least in developing countries. Many of the contributors are from develping countries and indicate the problems and some of the solutions their countries will need to adopt during their process of reconstruction, development and recovery. The text discusses the decision-making process involving the political, socioeconomic, engineering, and natural sciences so as to develop, analyze and compare regulatory options. It considers how such measured decision making enables the selection of optimal responses to achieve safety from perceived hazards.
Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309103800

Category: Science

Page: 126

View: 930

Biological threats like SARS and natural disasters like the tsunami in Indonesia have devastated entire regions, and quickly exhausted budgetary resources. As the field of environmental health continues to evolve, scientists and others must focus on gaining a better understanding of the links between human health and various environmental factors, and on creating new paradigms and partnerships needed to address these complex environmental health challenges facing society. Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulations to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary discusses the role of industry in environmental health, examines programs designed to improve the overall state of environmental health, and explores how governmental and corporate entities can collaborate to manage this industry. Stakeholders in both the public and private sectors are looking for viable solutions as the complexity of societal problems and risks associated with management and varying regulatory standards continue to increase. Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century draws critical links and provides insight into the current shape of global environmental health. The book recommends expanding environmental management systems (EMS) to encompass a more extensive global network. It also provides a complete assessment of the benefits and costs resulting from implementation of various environmental management systems.
Governing Risk in the 21st Century

Author: Peter W. B. Phillips

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: STANFORD:36105114204758

Category: Medical

Page: 112

View: 682

StatCrunch is online statistical software that allows users to perform complex analyses, share data sets, and generate compelling reports of their data. Developed by Webster West of Texas A&M University, StatCrunch.com already has more than 13,000 data sets available for students to analyze, covering almost any topic of interest. Interactive graphics help users understand statistical concepts and are available for export to enrich reports with visual representations of data. The StatCrunch statistics software is also integrated into MyStatLab(tm), enabling students to analyze and interpret data sets from the textbook.