Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing

Author: Chantra Eskes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319338242

Category: Medical

Page: 407

View: 257

This book provides information on best practices and new thinking regarding the validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing. It covers the validation of experimental and computational methods and integrated approaches to testing and assessment. Validation strategies are discussed for methods employing the latest technologies such as tissue-on-a-chip systems, stem cells and transcriptomics, and for methods derived from pathway-based concepts in toxicology. Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing is divided into two sections, in the first, practical insights are given on the state-of-the-art and on approaches that have resulted in successfully validated and accepted alternative methods. The second section focuses on the evolution of validation principles and practice that are necessary to ensure fit-for-purpose validation that has the greatest impact on international regulatory acceptance of alternative methods. In this context validation needs to keep pace with the considerable scientific advancements being made in toxicology, the availability of sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied in a variety of ways, and the increasing societal and regulatory demands for better safety assessment. This book will be a useful resource for scientists in the field of toxicology, both from industry and academia, developing new test methods, strategies or techniques, as well as Governmental and regulatory authorities interested in understanding the principles and practicalities of validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.
Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing

Author: Chantra Eskes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319338262

Category: Medical

Page: 407

View: 794

This book provides information on best practices and new thinking regarding the validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing. It covers the validation of experimental and computational methods and integrated approaches to testing and assessment. Validation strategies are discussed for methods employing the latest technologies such as tissue-on-a-chip systems, stem cells and transcriptomics, and for methods derived from pathway-based concepts in toxicology. Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing is divided into two sections, in the first, practical insights are given on the state-of-the-art and on approaches that have resulted in successfully validated and accepted alternative methods. The second section focuses on the evolution of validation principles and practice that are necessary to ensure fit-for-purpose validation that has the greatest impact on international regulatory acceptance of alternative methods. In this context validation needs to keep pace with the considerable scientific advancements being made in toxicology, the availability of sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied in a variety of ways, and the increasing societal and regulatory demands for better safety assessment. This book will be a useful resource for scientists in the field of toxicology, both from industry and academia, developing new test methods, strategies or techniques, as well as Governmental and regulatory authorities interested in understanding the principles and practicalities of validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing.
Principles of Toxicology

Author: Stephen M. Roberts

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119635178

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 172

Principles of Toxicology concisely and efficiently presents the scientific basis for toxicology as it applies to the workplace and the environment, covering diverse chemical hazards encountered in modern workplaces and natural environments and providing a practical understanding of these hazards for those concerned with protecting the health of humans and ecosystems. The work presents not only theory, but also practical information regarding chemical hazards to give the student and new professional a working knowledge of the practice of toxicology and the ability to solve problems in environmental and industrial settings. Case histories and examples from industrial and environmental exposures to chemicals are included to demonstrate the application of toxicological principles. To allow for seamless reader comprehension and further exploration of covered topics, the work is supplemented with numerous illustrations to clarify and summarize key points, as well as annotated bibliographies. In the 4th edition, all chapters and references have been updated to account for the latest scientific thinking, and new color figures have been added. New topics covered in 4th Edition of Principles of Toxicology include: Regulatory toxicology, including the key regulatory framework in which much of the field of toxicology operates Alternative methods in toxicology, including cutting-edge approaches to developing new information on the toxicity of drugs and chemicals The dilemma of selecting safe exposure limits, guiding readers through practical considerations and pitfalls in developing and using safe exposure limits Ecological risk assessment, with detailed discussion of methods and considerations when evaluating the effects of contaminants on plants and animals. Providing information on the principles of toxicology and the application of those principles to solve problems in environmental and industrial settings, Principles of Toxicology serves as an excellent textbook resource for advanced undergraduate, graduate, and professional students in a range of environmental and health fields. It is also valuable to health professionals who need toxicological information and assistance beyond what is found in an introductory text to general toxicology.
The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128136980

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 405

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies.
Information Resources in Toxicology

Author: P.J. Bert Hakkinen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080920039

Category: Science

Page: 1552

View: 778

This latest version of Information Resources in Toxicology (IRT) continues a tradition established in 1982 with the publication of the first edition in presenting an extensive itemization, review, and commentary on the information infrastructure of the field. This book is a unique wide-ranging, international, annotated bibliography and compendium of major resources in toxicology and allied fields such as environmental and occupational health, chemical safety, and risk assessment. Thoroughly updated, the current edition analyzes technological changes and is rife with online tools and links to Web sites. IRT-IV is highly structured, providing easy access to its information. Among the “hot topics covered are Disaster Preparedness and Management, Nanotechnology, Omics, the Precautionary Principle, Risk Assessment, and Biological, Chemical and Radioactive Terrorism and Warfare are among the designated. • International in scope, with contributions from over 30 countries • Numerous key references and relevant Web links • Concise narratives about toxicologic sub-disciplines • Valuable appendices such as the IUPAC Glossary of Terms in Toxicology • Authored by experts in their respective sub-disciplines within toxicology
The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128136979

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 707

The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement,Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated, miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing, capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialized areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology uses a chronological approach to demonstrate how the use of alternative methods has evolved from their conception as adjuncts to traditional animal toxicity tests to replacements for them. This volume in the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series explores the history of alternative test development, validation, and use, with an emphasis on humanity and good science, in line with the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept expounded by William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 in their now-classic volume, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The book describes the historical development of technologies that have influenced the application of alternatives in toxicology and safety testing. These range from single cell monocultures to sophisticated miniaturised and microfluidic organism-on-a-chip devices, and also include molecular modelling, chemoinformatics and QSAR analysis, and the use of stem cells, tissue engineering and hollow fibre bioreactors. This has been facilitated by the wider availability of human tissues, advances in tissue culture, analytical and diagnostic methods, increases in computational processing capabilities, and a greater understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. These technological developments have enhanced the range and information content of the toxicity endpoints detected, and therefore the relevance of test systems and data interpretation, while new techniques for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and high resolution detection methods have permitted an increased role for human studies. Several key examples of how these technologies are being harnessed to meet 21st century safety assessment challenges are provided, including their deployment in integrated testing schemes in conjunction with kinetic modelling, and in specialised areas, such as inhalation toxicity studies. Covers each global region in a systematic fashion, showing how regions compare in terms of problems faced and resolution approaches Includes a thorough chronology of alternatives research, thus providing a complete overview Focuses on methods of direct relevance to humans to address issues of efficacy and waste
Dermatotoxicology Methods

Author: Francis N. Marzulli

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439805873

Category: Medical

Page: 420

View: 888

This work presents and evaluates methods employed to identify the potential of certain types of chemicals to adversely affect the skin. A variety of test methods are included such as tests for skin penetration, metabolism, irritation, the skin immune system, photo effects, skin cancer, and topical effects of retinoids and depigmenting chemicals. Tests for chemicals that affect the reproductive and nervous system are also included. Both animal and human tests that have been standardised and tests that are under development and employ animal alternatives are addressed in this book. Besides different testing methods, a rationale for accepting non-animal models and a review of some regulatory agency discussions about animal alternative tests are included.
Principles of Toxicology Testing

Author: Frank A. Barile

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420008326

Category: Medical

Page: 338

View: 836

The evolution of toxicology testing finds its impetus in the continuing growth of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the awareness of public health initiatives, needs, and responses that demand faster, more accurate, more economical methods for screening potential toxicity. Concurrent advances in biotechnology enable viable in v
Reducing, Refining and Replacing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing

Author: Dave Allen

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781849737920

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 152

Toxicity testing is used to assess the safety or hazards presented by substances such as industrial chemicals, consumer products, and pharmaceuticals. At present, many methods involve laboratory animals. Alternative procedures, some involving human cell-based technologies, are now being developed which reduce, refine, or replace animal usage and minimize the pain and distress caused. These new tests must protect public health and the environment at least as well as currently accepted methods. This book describes the ever-expanding "toolbox" of methods available to assess toxicity. Such techniques often result from our growing understanding of the biochemical and cellular pathways that mediate toxicity mechanisms. This permits evaluations of information generated from several sources to generate a "weight of evidence". By combining in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo methods with technologies that rely on biochemical- and cell-based in vitro assays, toxicologists are developing mechanistically based alternatives to live animal experimentation. This text also explores the complexities associated with adequate validation, and the assessment of test reliability and relevance. It provides an essential reference source for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in this rapidly changing area.
Principles of Toxicology Testing, Second Edition

Author: Frank A Barile

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781842145289

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 355

Nationally, toxicology programs have evolved from a traditional exploration of the chemistry and applied toxicity of chemicals and drugs to a more comprehensive study of toxicology and toxicology testing as independent entities. Consequently, the second edition of Principles of Toxicology Testing starts with basic toxicological principles, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of toxins, including chemicals and drugs. The book then continues with animal (in vivo) and in vitro toxicology testing methods associated with toxicological analysis and preclinical drug development. As in the first edition, the book begins with an introduction into the fundamentals of toxicology (Section I) to prepare readers for the subsequent topics and continues through with a discussion of toxicokinetics and human risk assessment. This introductory material is useful in understanding the applications of toxicology testing. Section II describes the fundamental principles of toxicology testing in animals in greater detail. This section describes acute toxicity studies as well as subchronic and chronic studies performed on animals. Special emphasis is placed on study design and determination of classical indicators for acute and chronic testing, such as the LD50. The book examines other short- and long-term animal toxicity testing methodologies, including dermal, ocular, and reproductive toxicity testing. In addition, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies are also discussed in separate chapters. Section III introduces and discusses in vitro alternatives to animal toxicology tests. This section emphasizes cell culture methodology and cellular methods for acute systemic toxicity, target organ toxicity, and local toxicity. The contributors present the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods. They also describe the use of high-throughput screening and its applications, the concepts of standardization and validation of in vitro techniques (especially large, organized validation efforts currently supported by US and EU regulatory agencies), and the theories supporting the development of in vitro methodologies. This second edition is a must-read for undergraduate and graduate toxicology students. Industrial and academic research centers will also find the text useful for establishing a toxicology testing laboratory.