World Development Report 1994 examines the link between infrastructure and development and explores ways in which developing countries can improve both the provision and the quality of infrastructure services. In recent decades, developing countries have made substantial investments in infrastructure, achieving dramatic gains for households and producers by expanding their access to services such as safe water, sanitation, electric power, telecommunications, and transport. Even more infrastructure investment and expansion are needed in order to extend the reach of services - especially to people living in rural areas and to the poor. But as this report shows, the quantity of investment cannot be the exclusive focus of policy. Improving the quality of infrastructure service also is vital. Both quantity and quality improvements are essential to modernize and diversify production, help countries compete internationally, and accommodate rapid urbanization. The report identifies the basic cause of poor past performance as inadequate institutional incentives for improving the provision of infrastructure. To promote more efficient and responsive service delivery, incentives need to be changed through commercial management, competition, and user involvement. Several trends are helping to improve the performance of infrastructure. First, innovation in technology and in the regulatory management of markets makes more diversity possible in the supply of services. Second, an evaluation of the role of government is leading to a shift from direct government provision of services to increasing private sector provision and recent experience in many countries with public-private partnerships is highlighting new ways to increase efficiency and expand services. Third, increased concern about social and environmental sustainability has heightened public interest in infrastructure design and performance.
The premise of The Environment and Development in Africa is that current environmental problems in sub-Saharan Africa are an outcome of the continent's development activities. Whether these activities have generated economic growth and raised living standards or have led to growth without overall increases in living standards--or have even contributed to a decline in people's well-being--developments in that region have produced effects that have degraded Africa's environment in many ways. This book presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the context of the environmental issues facing sub-Saharan African states. Contributors discuss the problems associated with generating the capacity to manage Africa's environmental concerns; assess the impact of economic development efforts on the region's environment; and examine various societal and policy responses to environmental problems and to development problems linked to ecological decay. This is an important book for scholars and policy advisors concerned with African studies and global environmental issues.
Annotation. The 1995 conference continued the tradition of holding a roundtable discussion related to the subject of the forthcoming annual World Development Report (*), in this case, economies in transition. The conference addressed four themes: redistribution with growth; demographic change and development; aid and development; and fiscal decentralization. Among the articles included in the 1995 proceedings are: - Argentina's Miracle? From Hyperinflation to Sustained Growth. Domingo F. Cavallo and Guillermo Mondino - Inequality, Poverty, and Growth: Where Do We Stand? Albert Fishlow - Government Provision and Regulation of Economic Support in Old Age. Peter Diamond - Is Growth in Developing Countries Beneficial to Industrial Countries? Richard N. Cooper - Fiscal Federalism and Decentralization: A Review of Some Efficiency and Macroeconomic Aspects. Vito Tanzi.
This book is a study of Third World economic development and the factors which have made development so elusive. It discusses the policy reform necessary to spur development as well as the relationship between development theory and policy. The author argues that the key to successful development policy is through reduced state intervention, and that to the extent state intervention is necessary, it should be through rather than against the market mechanism.
Why are carefully designed, sensible policies too often not adopted or implemented? When they are, why do they often fail to generate development outcomes such as security, growth, and equity? And why do some bad policies endure? World Development Report 2017: Governance and the Law addresses these fundamental questions, which are at the heart of development. Policy making and policy implementation do not occur in a vacuum. Rather, they take place in complex political and social settings, in which individuals and groups with unequal power interact within changing rules as they pursue conflicting interests. The process of these interactions is what this Report calls governance, and the space in which these interactions take place, the policy arena. The capacity of actors to commit and their willingness to cooperate and coordinate to achieve socially desirable goals are what matter for effectiveness. However, who bargains, who is excluded, and what barriers block entry to the policy arena determine the selection and implementation of policies and, consequently, their impact on development outcomes. Exclusion, capture, and clientelism are manifestations of power asymmetries that lead to failures to achieve security, growth, and equity. The distribution of power in society is partly determined by history. Yet, there is room for positive change. This Report reveals that governance can mitigate, even overcome, power asymmetries to bring about more effective policy interventions that achieve sustainable improvements in security, growth, and equity. This happens by shifting the incentives of those with power, reshaping their preferences in favor of good outcomes, and taking into account the interests of previously excluded participants. These changes can come about through bargains among elites and greater citizen engagement, as well as by international actors supporting rules that strengthen coalitions for reform.
This book focuses on the provision of basic social services - in particular, access to education, health and water supplies - as the central building blocks of any human development strategy. The authors concentrate on how these basic social services can be financed and delivered more effectively to achieve the internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals. Their analysis, which departs from the dominant macro-economic paradigm, deploys the results of broad-ranging research they led at UNICEF and UNDP, investigating the record on basic social services of some 30 developing countries. In seeking to learn from these new data, they develop an analytical argument around two potential synergies: at the macro level, between poverty reduction, human development and economic growth, and at the micro level, between interventions to provide basic social services. Policymakers, they argue, can integrate macro-economic and social policy. Fiscal, monetary, and other macro-economic policies can be compatible with social sector requirements. They make the case that policymakers have more flexibility than is usually presented by orthodox writers and international financial institutions, and that if policymakers engaged in alternative macro-economic and growth-oriented policies, this could lead to the expansion of human capabilities and the fulfillment of human rights. This book explores some of these policy options. The book also argues that more than just additional aid is needed. Specific strategic shifts in the areas of aid policy, decentralized governance, health and education policy and the private-public mix in service provision are a prerequisite to achieve the goals of human development. The combination of governance reforms and fiscal and macro-economic policies outlined in this book can eliminate human poverty in the span of a generation.
Geographies of Development second edition Robert B. Potter Tony Binns Jennifer A. Elliott, David Smith Geographies of Development is an established, innovative and comprehensive introductory textbook for undergraduate students of Development Geography, Development Studies and related fields. A pioneer of the holistic approach, it encourages critical engagement by integrating key topics throughout the text, such as development ideology, globalisation, modernity, gender, ethnicity, tourism, resources, development aid, land degradation and environmental sustainability. It argues lucidly, convincingly and informatively that ideas concerning development have been many and varied, and have been highly contested, varying from time to time and from place to place. Key features Integrates theory, practice and illustration to bring the subject alive and encourage a balanced and considered overview of 'development' Accessible layout of material, illustrated by numerous diagrams, graphs, photographs and tables, aids understanding of the subject Each chapter includes boxed case studies, key concepts summaries, suggestions for further reading and topics for discussion New to this edition New material and case studies drawn from scholarly and popular sources to encourage a critical approach and to increase contemporary relevance, as in Part 1 'Conceptualising Development' Fully updated to reflect the most recent developments in theory (anti-development, post-development, post-colonialism and post-structuralism) and practice (anti-capitalism, anti-globalisation, TNCs, critiques of the WTO, arguments for the relocation of production, GM crops and agricultural change) New coverage of key concepts such as social capital, civil society and participatory development Extended coverage of the World Bank, IMF, neo-liberal policies and Poverty Reduction Strategies New coverage of poverty and debt reduction, the Millennium development goals, global warming and GM crops and linkages between urban and rural areas 'a text I would recommend highly for an introductory course in development studies' "Economic Geography" 'a truly multidisciplinary resource that will likely satisfy students with an interest in development' "Journal of Rural Studies" Robert B. Potter is Professor of Human Geography at the University of Reading. Tony Binns is Reader in Geography at the University of Sussex. Jennifer A. Elliott is Principal Lecturer in Geography at the University of Brighton. The late David Smith was Professor of Economic Geography at the University if Liverpool. All of the authors have considerable teaching experience in this are and collectively bring first-hand research expertise from North, West and Southern Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and the Caribbean and South America. Cover illustration by Matthew Richardson Based on an original sketch by Rob Potter
This systematic evaluation of Iraq’s political economy and human development offers a complex and sophisticated analysis of Iraq’s recent history. Focusing on the period from 1950 up to the Gulf war in 1990, the book brings an understanding of how development has been shaped or constrained in this much misunderstood country. The author employs the human development paradigm to link human development and human rights to the analysis of political economy. The resulting scholarship, on income and investment, education and health, the status of women, and human rights, presents a nuanced, balanced - but critical - appraisal of the complex interrelationships between economic growth and development and illustrates the fragility of that development, especially when political institutions fail to keep up with the rapid expansion in human capabilities. Providing the historical analysis needed to understand Iraq’s current political situation, this book will be of great interest to scholars of development studies, Iraq, and political economy.