Yearbook of the United Nations. 39. 1985 (1989)

Author: United Nations. Department of Public Information

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 0792305035

Category: Political Science

Page: 1534

View: 256

Issued annually since 1946/47, the Yearbook is the principal reference work of the United Nations, providing a comprehensive, one-volume account of the Organization's work. It includes details of United Nations activities concerning trade, industrial development, natural resources, food, science & technology, social development, population, environment, human settlements, children & legal questions, along with information on the work of each specialized agency in the United Nations family. The Yearbook is an indispensable guide to the UN.
ASEAN Resistance to Sovereignty Violation

Author: Southgate, Laura

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 9781529202212

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 314

Examining how the Association of Southeast Asian Nations’ (ASEAN) has responded to external threats over the past 50 years, this book provides a compelling account of regional state actions and foreign policy in the face of potential sovereignty violation. The author draws on a large amount of previously unanalysed material, including declassified government documents and WikiLeaks cables, to examine four key cases since 1975. Taking into account state interests and the role of external powers, the author develops the ‘vanguard state theory’ to explain ASEAN state responses to sovereignty violation, which, it is argued, has universal applicability and explanatory power.
Arms Control and Iranian Foreign Policy

Author: Bobi Pirseyedi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136229558

Category: Political Science

Page: 306

View: 495

Since 2003, when the world learned that the Islamic Republic of Iran had succeeded in secretly developing a capability to enrich uranium and separate plutonium, the question of Iran’s nuclear program has ranked high on the international political and arms control agenda. This book studies the IRI’s diplomatic operations in the issue area of arms control and demonstrates how arms control diplomacy has formed an integral part of the IRI’s foreign policy during the various phases of its history. Furthermore, it fills a gap in the research literature on Iran’s foreign and security policies by providing the first comprehensive account of Iranian arms control diplomacy under the Islamic regime. This book aims at reconstructing Iran’s diplomatic operations in four distinct thematic areas of arms control: conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear arms control. It also looks at the diplomatic means by which the IRI’s leadership has tried to achieve its arms control objectives. This text also seeks to identify and examine the individual objectives that have guided Iranian policy choices in the domain of arms control. Finally, it places the reconstructed Iranian objectives into a broader context by elaborating on the fundamental values or foreign policy goals that the IRI’s arms control objectives have served. This highly informative and thought provoking volume will be valuable reading for students, researchers and academics, as well as for commentators and policy-makers interested in Middle East studies, Iranian studies, international relations and arms control.
New Perspectives on Nitrogen Cycling in the Temperate and Tropical Americas

Author: Alan R. Townsend

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401146456

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 950

Inputs of nitrogen to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have increased several-fold over the last one hundred and fifty years, with the steepest increases during the last four decades. The expansion of fertilizer manu facture and use, the increase in fossil fuel combustion, the intensification of animal husbandry, and widespread cultivation of N2 fixing crops have all contributed to the dramatic increase in N inputs. The increase has been most rapid in Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperate ecosystems, but presently subtropical and tropical regions of Asia are also experiencing an explosive increase in N inputs to terrestrial ecosystems (W. Chameides, pers. comm. ; Galloway et al. 1996). Projected increases in N deposition for these trop ical and subtropical regions, with a high natural background of N inputs, exceed increases projected for temperate and arctic regions (Cleveland et al. submitted; Galloway et al. 1994; Holland & Lamarque 1997a). Compared to biological N fixation, N deposition is becoming a proportionately greater source of N to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems worldwide (Vitousek et al. 1997). 6 The nitrogen contained in the atmosphere as N , 3. 9 * 10 Tg (Tg = 2 12 10 g), is the largest reservoir of N in the Earth system (Warneck 1988). However, this paper focuses on the nitrogen emissions and deposition that have been transformed from N2 into reactive forms that are biologically avail able (e. g. Vitousek et al. 1997).
Yearbook of the United Nations. 41.1987(1992)

Author:

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 0792316134

Category: Political Science

Page: 1460

View: 539

Issued annually since 1946/47, the "Yearbook" is the principal reference work of the United Nations, providing a comprehensive, one-volume account of the Organization's work. It includes details of United Nations activities concerning trade, industrial development, natural resources, food, science and technology, social development, polulation, environment, human settlement, children and legal questions, along with information on the work of each specialized agency in the United Nations family.
Use of Force

Author: Arthur Mark Weisburd

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271071497

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 195

This book is among the few to develop in detail the proposition that international law on the subject of interstate force is better derived from practice than from treaties. Mark Weisburd assembles here a broad body of evidence to support practice-based rules of law on the subject of force. Analyses of a particular use of force by a state against another state generally begin with the language of the Charter of the United Nations. This approach is seriously flawed, argues Weisburd. States do not, in fact, behave as the Charter requires. If the legal rule regulating the use of force is the rule of the Charter, then law is nearly irrelevant to the interstate use of force. However, treaties like the Charter are not the only source of public international law. Customary law, too, is binding on states. If state behavior can be shown to conform generally to what amount to tacit rules on the use of force, and if states generally enforce such rules against other states, then the resulting pattern of practice strongly supports the argument that the use of force is affected by law at a very practical level. This work aims to demonstrate that such patterns exist and to explain their content. Weisburd discusses over one hundred interstate conflicts that took place from 1945 through 1991. He focuses on the behavior of the states using force and on the reaction of third parties to the use of force. He concentrates upon state practice rather than upon treaty law and does not assume a priori that any particular policy goal can be attributed to the international legal system, proceeding instead on the assumption that the system's goals can be determined only by examining the workings of the system.
Yearbook of the United Nations. 45.1991(1992)

Author: United Nations. Dept. of Public Information

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 0792319702

Category: Political Science

Page: 1162

View: 499

Fully indexed, the 1991 edition of the "Yearbook" is the single most current, comprehensive and authoritative reference publication about the work of the United Nations, other international organizations and related bodies. The book is designed not just for use by diplomats, officials and scholars but also by other researchers, writers, journalists, teachers and students. The year 1991 was a remarkably eventful one for the United Nations and in the conduct of international relations. This volume of the "Yearbook" details the activities of the United Nations, its many organs, agencies and programmes, working together to rekindle a new form of multilateral cooperation for a better world. It records the diverse and globe-encompassing activities of the United Nations and its enduring efforts to deal with the world's pressing concerns, particularly matters of international peace and security, disarmament, human rights, the settlement of regional conflicts, economic and social development, the preservation of the environment, control of drugs and narcotic substance abuse, crime prevention, adequate shelter, youth and the ageing and humanitarian assistance for refugees as well as disaster relief. The "Yearbook of the United Nations" is now up-to-date. The Yearbooks for the years 1988, 1989 and 1990 will be published simultaneously.
Caffeine

Author: Gene A. Spiller

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429525582

Category: Medical

Page: 285

View: 766

Caffeine-found in tea, coffee, mate, cola beverages, cocoa, and chocolate products-is an integral part of the diet of many people. Caffeine answers questions for a broad range of readers interested in the effects beverages and foods containing this dietary methylxanthine have on human health, nutrition, and physiological functioning. The compositio
A Political Economy of Lebanon, 1948-2002

Author: Toufic Gaspard

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789047402572

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 430

This book assesses the laissez-faire strategy for economic development, based on Lebanon’s unique experience during 1948-2002. It also analyzes the country’s industrialization performance, its monetary crisis in the mid-1980s, and the dynamics of the system from a Post-Keynesian perspective.